لینک‌های قابلیت دسترسی

پنجشنبه ۱۸ آذر ۱۳۹۵ تهران ۱۳:۳۷ - ۸ دسامبر ۲۰۱۶

واكنش دولت و مجلس به آئين نامه نظارت مجمع تشخيص مصلحت نظام بر سه قوه


مهدي خلجي

Summary of Today's BroadcastRFE/RL Persian ServiceWednesday, June 26, 2002 - Expediency Council Seeks to Control Majles and Government - Russian-Iran cooperation - Nationalist-religious activists prosecution - MPs protest new legal marrying age - PEN Canada demands release of journalists from jail - Amini's son goes to Tehran - Friedman: A view from Tehran - Mehrangiz Kar on torture in Iran Majles to Review Expediency Council's Decision to Supervise Three Branches * Majles Speaker Mehdi Karubi named three MPs to a committee to review the new Expediency Council's decision to supervise the three branches of the government. The Expediency Council directed the Guardians Council to approve or reject Majles bills based on their compatibility with the Expediency Council's general policy guidelines, as well as Islam and the constitution. The Expediency Council plans to set up a supervisory committee with power over all three branches of the government. RFE/RL's Mehdi Khalaji says this would enable the Supreme Leader and the bodies whose members are appointed by him to take control of the elected legislative and executive branches. Russia's Deputy Energy Minister in Tehran * Russia's deputy energy minister Mikhael Dimitriev, in Tehran on an official visit, said Russia-Iran defense, security and industrial cooperation does not threaten any third country. (Mani Kasravi, Moscow) Intelligence Minister Faults Military Court on Murders' Investigation Intelligence minister Ali Yunesi said in an interview with the student news agency ISNA that the armed forces' judiciary derailed the investigation of the 1999 serial assassinations. He urged reporters to follow up the punishment of the interrogators who were given jail sentences for abusing and torturing the accused but are still free. Yunesi was reacting to last week's charge by Mohammad Niazi, the head of the armed forces judiciary, that the intelligence ministry mishandled the investigation. * London-based journalist Ali-Reza Nurizadeh tells RFE/RL that one of the men appearing in the video of the investigations as playing the "good cop" to the other investigators' "bad cop" is a cleric representing the armed forces judiciary. * Tehran-based pro-reform journalist Mehdi-Mahdavi Azad says by urging reporters to further investigate the case Yunesi seeks to distance the government from the serial murders investigation. (Siavash Ardalan) Rift in the Judiciary over Nationalist-Religious Activists' Prosecution * The head of Tehran judiciary Abbas-Ali Alizadeh said today that the Tehran revolutionary court would soon hand down sentences for the nationalist-religious coalition members who have been tried on subversion charges. He denied recent rumors that the judiciary plans to close the file due to insufficient evidence. He distances the Tehran judiciary from possible policies of the Islamic Republic judiciary on the case of the thirty leaders and members of the coalition who were tried after more than one year in prison and were freed on bail pending the court's decision. (Mehdi Khalaji) Woman MP's Protest New Legal Age for Marriage * The Expediency Council's decision on the legal marrying age for girls met with criticism from the Majles women MPs. Tehran-based legal advisor Zohreh Arzani tells RFE/RL that the decision raises the legal marrying age for girls from 9 to 13 and is a move forward. Tehran-based university professor and head of the family cultural center Abdolreza Kordi tells RFE/RL that poverty forces families in rural areas to marry off their young daughters at the age of 9. Paris-based sociologist Azadeh Kian tells RFE/RL that nor the Expediency Council's decision does not reflect the median age of marriage for girls, which is 19 in rural areas and 24 in urban centers. She asks: "How can a girl who cannot get a driver's license before reaching 18 be allowed to be married off at the age of 9 or 13 or, as the Majles had approved, 15?" PEN Canada and PEN American Center Demand Freedom of Jailed Writers * In a press conference at Toronto's Massey College, Booker-Prize winner Margaret Atwood joined lawyer and human rights activist Mehrangiz Kar, former special representative of the UN Human Rights Commission Maurice Copithorne, and PEN Canada president Iranian literary critic Reza Barahani to demand the freedom of Ms. Kar's jailed husband, veteran journalist Siamak Pourzand, as well as the freedom of Hasan Yusefi Eskevari, Akbar Ganji and Khalil Rostamkhani. Margaret Atwood praised Mehrangiz Kar's courage in defending human rights under dangerous conditions. Ms. Kar said she owes her freedom from jail in Tehran to efforts of the PEN chapters and Maurice Copithorne's intervention on her behalf. Maurice Copithorne tells RFE/RL that Iranians should encourage world governments and NGO's to add a resolution against human rights violations in Iran to the agenda of the UN Human Rights Commission's agenda. PEN Canada president Reza Barahani tells RFE/RL that the goal of the press conference with Ms. Kar is to demand immediate release of the four journalists. (Behnam Nateghi, Toronto) Tehran Welcomes the Son of a Monarchist Foe of the Regime * Iraj Amini, whose father Ali Amini was a prime minister under the Shah and fought the Islamic Republic in Paris until his death 10 years ago, was surprised to be welcomed with courtesy on his recent trip to Iran to do research on the book he is writing about his father, writes the Irish Times. (Nazi Azima) A View from Tehran: People Reject Clerical Rule * In his latest article from Tehran, the New York Times columnist Thomas Friedman writes that the key to peaceful change in Iran to forge a new alliance between rational conservatives and reformists, isolating the incompetent, more fundamentalist conservatives whose rule is increasingly resented by the population. He suggests a new US approach towards Iran might hasten the demise of the clerical rule. (Fariba Mavedat) Haiku Poetry Competition Winner * Narges Rajai winner of an international Haiku competition on the Internet tells RFE/RL that a haiku communicates an image and a feeling in the shortest possible way. (Mehdi Khalaji) WORLD * Egypt and Jordan calls the US plan for peace in the Middle East "positive." Talat Hamed, an Arab League spokesperson, tells RFE/RL that the Arab community expects swift action from the US to end Middle East crisis. (Jamshid Chalangi, Cairo) * A group of European lawyers form a committee to defend the rights of the Palestinian prisoners. (Ahmad Ra'fat, Rome) * A Brussels appellate court ruled that Belgian courts cannot investigate charges against the Israeli PM Ariel Sharon. (Jean Khakzad, Paris) * Mahbubeh Hoquqmal, the new women's affairs minister in the transitional government Afghanistan, tells RFE/RL that the education of women, especially about their rights, is on top of her agenda. (Shireen Famili) * Italy warns against chemical and biological attacks by al Qaeda terrorists. (Ahmad Ra'fat, Rome) * The WorldCom accounting scandal hurts stock prices on Wall Street and other markets. (Fereydoun Zarnegar) * France plans to shut down the Sangat refugee camp. (Jean Khakzad, Paris) ARTS AND IDEAS RFE/RL's Daily Coverage of Soccer World Cup * RFE/RL's soccer commentator, Mehrdad Masudi, reports from Seoul on today's World Cup games. Civil Society and Human Rights: Torture in the Islamic Republic * In her first weekly talk for RFE/RL, human rights lawyer and activist Mehrangiz Kar discusses torture. Weekly Science Magazine DNA compters * USC's mathematician and biologist Leonard Edelman tells RFE/RL about his project to develop computers using human DNA which is a million times faster than electronic chips. (Fatemeh Aman, Washington) The Source of Space Meteors * NASA's senior scientist Kazem Omidvar tells RFE/RL that the new discovery by Colorado's Southwest university astronomers of the common origin of 12 space meteors could help in preventing their possible collision with Earth. (Fatemeh Aman, Washington) Youth, Society and Education * Dr. Said Peyvandi, Paris-based comparative sociology professor, discusses Iranian textbooks' obsession with the past, and comments about the controversy over the legal marrying age for girls, tuition in public schools and the row between the healthcare ministry and the ministry of higher education on control over medical schools. (Nazi Azima) Classic Love Stories: Vis va Ramin * Sadredin Elahi continues his recitation of the story of Vis va Ramin based on Fakhredin Asad Gorani. Cartoonist Kambiz Derambakhsh * Germany-based veteran cartoonist Kambiz Derambakh tells RFE/RL about his start 40 years ago in Tehran magazines and the development of his work. (Bahman Bastani) Masters of Persian Music in Cologne * Singer Mohammad-Reza Shajarian, and Kamancheh player Keyhan Kalhur tell RFE/RL about their concert in Cologne with instrumentalist and composer Hussein Alizadeh. (Shahram Mirian, Cologne)مهدي خلجي (راديوآزادي) مهدي کروبي، رئيس مجلس شوراي اسلامي سه تن از نمايندگان مجلس را مأمور کرد تا آيين نامه نحوه نظارت بر اجراي سياست هاي کلي نظام را بررسي کنند. مجمع تشخيص مصلحت نظام، در آيين نامه اخير خود، شوراي نگهبان را ملزم کرده که براي تأييد يا رد مصوبات مجلس شوراي اسلامي، مصوبات مجمع تشخيص مصلحت را معيار قرار دهد. در قانون اساسي جمهوري اسلامي، شوراي نگهبان تنها حق دارد مصوبات مجلس را به دليل ناسازگاري با قانون اساسي و شريعت اسلام رد کند. از سوي ديگر رهبر جمهوري اسلامي وظيفه نظارت بر حسن اجراي سياست هاي کلي نظام را به مجمع تشخيص مصلحت واگذار کرده و اين مجمع در پي تشکيل کميسيون نظارت است. بنا به گفته شماري از اعضاي مجمع تشخيص مصلحت، اين نظارت، دقيق و جزيي است و هم جنبه سلبي دارد و هم جنبه ايجابي، يعني هم به تخلفات تذکر مي دهد و هم در مواردي که لازم بداند ابتدا به ساکن به قواي سه گانه دستور العمل خواهد داد. تحليل گران سياسي مي گويند پيش کشيدن ملاک سومي براي ارزيابي مصوبات مجلس در شوراي نگهبان و هم چنين طراحي سازماني نظارتي در مجمع تشخيص مصلحت، قدرت رهبر، مجمع تشخيص مصلحت و شوراي نگهبان را افزايش مي دهد و در نتيجه عملکرد دولت و مجلس، در کنترل بيشتر اين نهادها قرار مي گيرد. محمد خاتمي، رييس جمهوري و مهدي کروبي، رئيس مجلس شوراي اسلامي، هر دو از مجمع تشخيص مصلحت نظام درخواست کرده اند تا تصويب نهايي اين آيين نامه را به تعويق بيندازد و آن را به انجام بررسي هاي دولت و مجلس موکول کند. اکنون، محمد رضا خاتمي، حسين مرعشي و مجيد انصاري که خود عضو مجمع تشخيص مصلحت است، در مقام سه نماينده مجلس، مأمور شده اند تا اين طرح را بررسي کنند. واکنش مجلس و دولت به اين آيين نامه مجمع تشخيص مصلحت در حالي صورت مي گيرد که حقوق دانان، اقدام مجمع را قانون گذاري و خروج از چارچوب وظايف تعيين شده براي مجمع ارزيابي مي کنند. اين چندمين موردي است که حقوق دانان، مجمع را به قانون گذاري که وظيفه انحصاري مجلس است، متهم مي کنند. مجمع تشخيص مصلحت نظام نهادي زير نظر رهبر جمهوري اسلامي است. در قانون اساسي جمهوري اسلامي، سازوکاري براي رسيدگي به تخلفات اين نهاد پيش بيني نشده است. حتا اين پرسش در ميان حقوق دانان مطرح است که آيا مي توان مسئوليت تخلفات اين مجمع از اصول قانون اساسي را به عهده رهبر دانست يا نه؟ در قانون اساسي جمهوري اسلامي، رئيس جمهوري مسئول اجراي قانون اساسي است. محمد خاتمي بارها اعلام کرده است که ضمانتي اجرايي براي عمل به اين وظيفه قانوني خود ندارد. در قانون اساسي، به اين نکته اشاره نشده که آيا مجلس شوراي اسلامي مي تواند راه حلي براي جلوگيري از تخلفات مجمع در پيش بگيرد يا نه؟ بنابراين، به نظر مي آيد در صورت بسته بودن راه هاي قانوني براي جلوگيري از تخلفات مجمع، تنها مذاکرات و تدابير سياسي مي تواند تغييري در آيين نامه مجمع به وجود آورد. به اين ترتيب تشکيل هيأت سه نفره نمايندگان براي براي بررسي اين آيين نامه نيز بيشتر اقدامي سياسي به نظر مي آيد تا حقوقي. با اين حساب بايد ديد که موازنه نيروهاي سياسي در روزهاي آينده آيا به نفع دولت و مجلس گرايش پيدا مي کند، يا اين که مجمع تشخيص مصلحت موفق خواهد شد، با تصويب نهايي آيين نامه خود، اختياراتي فراتر از قواي سه گانه کشور به دست آورد.

مهدي کروبي، رئيس مجلس شوراي اسلامي، سه تن از نمايندگان مجلس را مأمور بررسي آيين نامه اخير مجمع تشخيص مصلحت نظام كرد كه شوراي نگهبان را ملزم مي كند علاوه بر شرع اسلام و قانون اساسي، براي تأييد يا رد مصوبات مجلس شوراي اسلامي، مصوبات مجمع تشخيص مصلحت نظام را نيز معيار قرار دهد. تشكيل يك كميسيون نظارت بر سه قوه تحت نظر مجمع تشخيص مصلحت نظام، نهادهاي انتخابي رياست جمهوري و مجلس را تحت کنترل بيشتر رهبر جمهوري اسلامي و نهادهاي منتصب وي قرار مي دهد. محمد خاتمي، رييس جمهوري و مهدي کروبي، رئيس مجلس شوراي اسلامي، هر دو از مجمع تشخيص مصلحت نظام درخواست کرده اند تا تصويب نهايي اين آيين نامه را به تعويق بيندازد و آن را به انجام بررسي هاي دولت و مجلس موکول کند.

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