لینک‌های قابلیت دسترسی

یکشنبه ۲۱ آذر ۱۳۹۵ تهران ۰۰:۰۳ - ۱۱ دسامبر ۲۰۱۶

تحقيق وزارت علوم در باره عوامل چهارگانه فرار مغزها


سعيد پيوندي (پاريس)، با همكاري شيرين فاميلي

Summary of Today's BroadcastRFE/RL Persian ServiceSaturday, August 24, 2002 - Brain drain and government policies - Iran-Russia negotiations - Hand-woven carpets lose market share in Europe - Education ministry to ban private tutoring - Iranian filmmaker's short on September 11 - Iraq accuses Iran of backing Islamist Kurdish group - Iranians participate in Sweden's elections - Impact of the dollar's fall on Iranian economy Higher Education Ministry Blames Brain Drain on Government Policies In a question and answer session at the Majles about the growing brain drain, the minister of higher education said a ministry survey shows that political instability, a sense of personal insecurity, lack of hope for the future, job discrimination and low salaries encourage the best educated Iranians to seek positions in universities and businesses outside Iran. Also, Ali Rafiee, a researcher in social issues, told ISNA, the student news agency, that more than 5,000 Iranian-born professors and teachers work in US universities and research facilities, a figure higher than the number of all university professors and teachers working inside Iran. * The political, social, educational and economic factors cited in the higher education ministry's survey are all the result of the policies pursued by the regime during the past two decades and the present political turmoil, according to RFE/RL's Paris-based education affairs commentator Said Peyvandi. He says the survey shows that the migration of young educated Iranians grew after the violent suppression of the July 9, 1998 student uprising, which followed the police attack on student dorms. He says Iran ranked first among 69 developing countries in brain drain, the result of which will soon be felt in Iran's economy in the form of a shortage of experts and specialists. (Shireen Famili) * Tehran University political science professor Ahmad Naqibzadeh tells RFE/RL that the migration wave of the Iranian elite increased because the reform government failed to produce any reforms in the universities. (Amir-Mosaddegh Katouzian) Iran-Russia Negotiations * Iranian and Russian officials began talks in Moscow on nuclear cooperation and holding a world conference in 2004 against proliferation of nuclear arms, according to a Russian foreign ministry statement. The talks also covered a chemical arms ban. (Alireza Taheri) Iranian Hand-woven Carpets Lose Market Share in Europe * Iran earned only $141 million during the first four months of the current fiscal year (which began on March 22, 2002), according to commerce minister Mohammad Shariatmadari. Cologne-based carpet trader and appraiser Mehdi Faqihi tells RFE/RL that the quality of Iranian products has recently improved and more attention is being paid to European tastes, but that Europe is facing an economic slowdown and the Persian rug market is experiencing an oversupply. He adds that since the 1979 revolution, Iranian carpets began to lose market share due to decreasing quality, higher prices and heavy competition from Asia.. (Shahram Mirian, Cologne) Education Ministry to Ban Private Tutoring of Teachers An education ministry official in charge of regulating and supervising private classes said today that private tutoring by the ministry's teachers is beneath their dignity. He said the ministry is working on a plan to ban teachers from private tutoring of students in their homes. * Zohereh Saidi, a schoolteacher in Tehran, tells RFE/RL that teachers work in second jobs much more difficult and demeaning than private tutoring, such as cab driving. (Shireen Famili) Samira Makhmalbaf Contibutes to September 11 Film * Samira Makhmalbaf is among 11 world filmmakers who contributed an 11-minute film to a movie that will begin touring international film festivals on the anniversary of September 11. (Jean Khakzad, Paris) Saddam Hussein's Son says Iran Supports Kurdish Extremists * Saddam's son Udday accused Iran in a television interview of funding an extremist Islamic Kurdish group active in northern Iraq. Also, London's Guardian reported that al-Qaeda elements have joined Ansar-ol-Eslam, another Kurdish Islamic extremist group in northern Iraq. (Alireza Taheri) Iranian Participation in Sweden's General Elections The six major political parties in Sweden all field Iranian-born candidates in the September 15 national elections. Swedish Iranians constitute one percent of Sweden's electorate. * Sweden-based political analyst Mohsen Heydarian tells RFE/RL that Iranian immigrants to Sweden are highly educated, have political activist backgrounds, and are drawn to democracy there. Many of the first- and second-generation Iranians standing for election in Sweden's general elections are women. (Shireen Famili) Impact of Dollar's Fall on the Iranian Economy * The recent fall of the dollar against the Euro has some government economists thinking that Iran needs to shift its oil sales from dollars to euros. Sweden-based economic commentator Ahmad Alavi tells RFE/RL that such a move cannot be accomplished in the short term and it may not have any long-term benefits for Iran, even though the dollar's fall has further increased Iran's inflation and unemployment. (Fereydoun Zarnegar) ARTS AND CULTURE Daily Internet Report * A review of an Internet site by veteran photographer Kamran Adle. Iranian Journal of Photography, iranjop.com, includes a sampling of the work of sports photographer Mehdi Aqeli. Also, a New York Times' article on young Iranians' use of Internet chat to communicate with the opposite sex. (Behnam Nateghi, New York) Daily medical advice (Dr. Mansur Moslehi, Los Angeles) Today in history (Gholamhossein Mirzasaleh, Tehran) Daily Book Review: Arjnameh * RFE/RL's Tehran-based book critic Kamran Fani reviews "The History of Contemporary Sufis" by Manuchehr Saduqi-Sahi, from Hekmat publishers. RFE/RL Special Review: Iran's Occupation by Allied Forces in WWII * Oxford University professor and prominent scholar of Iran's contemporary history Homayoun Katouzian talks about the events that led to allied occupation of Iran during WWII. Daily Science Report Hands-Free Typing * Researchers at Cavandish Laboratory, Cambridge, UK, developed a method for text entry based on inverse arithmetic coding that relies on gaze direction alone, and is faster and more accurate than an on-screen keyboards. It can work in most languages, since the language model can be trained on sample documents and adapts to the user's language as he or she writes. This can make writing possible for disabled people. (Fatemeh Aman, Washington) Song: Sabram Ata Kon * RFE/RL's music critic Mahmud Khoshnam plays a new version of the song Sabram Ata Kon (Give me patience) by Los Angeles-based singer Homeyra 40 years after she performed it for the first time in Iran at the start of her singing career. Shadi (Joy) * Los Angeles DJ Afshin Gorgin spins a selection of Persian pop tunes. New York Magazine Kafka and Prague * An exhibit at New York's Jewish Museum visits Prague through the eyes of Kafka. (Behnam Nateghi, New York) * Interview with progressive Santur player, composer and instrument maker Alan Koushan, who moved from Berkley to New York to record new CD's with the city's jazz musicians. He tells RFE/RL that he plays 1100 notes per minute on his own Santur, which uses strings from a variety of other instruments and strings specially developed by Koushan to play all Persian scales without the need for returning. (Behnam Nateghi, New York) WORLD * After being fired by Hamed Karzai-appointed minister of culture Seyyed Rahim, the conservative head of state radio and television Hafiz Mansur gathers signatures from 52 Afghan reporters demanding the removal of Seyyed Rahim, writes the Washington Post. (Fariba Mavedat, London) * The Palestinian authority refuses to take delivery of the corpse of Abu Nidhal, head of a splinter al-Fath terrorist group who was found dead in his apartment in Baghdad last week. (Jamshid Chalangi, Cairo) * Commander of the US forces in Afghanistan General Tommy Franks meets with Uzbekistan president in Tashkent. (Alireza Taheri) * An appeals court in Nigeria approves the stoning sentence against Amina Laval, a 31-year-old mother for adultery, since she became pregnant nearly two years after her divorce. (Shahram Mirian, Cologne) * More then 100 world leaders will gather in Johannesburg, South Africa, for the world earth conference. Secretary of State Collin Powell will head the US delegation, a reflection of the US President's indifference to the issue, writes the New York Times. (Fariba Mavedat, London) * In a UN conference in New York, more than 300 ecologists and environmental experts discuss the Asian brown cloud, which is threatening the health of more than 3 billion. UN ecologist Qahreman Soleimanpur tells RFE/RL that the thick mass of chemical particles and ashes would thicken in winter and block sunlight and rain, disrupt weather patterns, and damage agriculture in the affected areas by causing drought. (Homayoun Majd, Washington) * North Korea's head visits Russia, discusses building a railway from South Korea to Russia through North Korea. (Mani Kasravi, Moscow)

وزير علوم در جلسه پرسش و پاسخ مجلس شوراي اسلامي به نتايج تحقيقي اشاره كرد كه در وزارت علوم در باره مهاجرت متخصصان از ايران انجام شده است. دكتر سعيد پيوندي، كارشناس امورآموزشي ايران، مقيم پاريس، به نكات مطرح شده در اين گزارش مي پردازد. اين تحقيق نشان مي دهد كه چهاردسته عامل، كه هر چهار دسته به سياست هاي رسمي و مشكلات اساسي كشور در ارتباط با نهادهاي حكومتي مربوط مي شوند و فشارهائي كه اين نهاد ها بر روي جامعه مدني ايران، بر روي جامعه روشنفكري ايران و بر روي نخبگان عملي و فرهنگي كشور وارد مي سازند. چهاردسته عاملي كه وزارت علوم در گزارش خود مشوق فرار مغزها دانست عبارتند از: عوامل سياسي: نظير احساس عدم امنيت و ثبات در مديريت سياسي؛ عوامل اجتماعي: نظير عدم اطمينان نسبت به آينده و فشارها و محدوديت ها؛ عوامل علمي و فرهنگي: از جمله مداخله سياست در امور فرهنگي و علمي و همچنين عوامل اقتصادي و شغلي: ازجمله درآمد كم و نامناسب، بيكاري و تبعيض و نظام گزينشي و كم توجهي به شايستگي. وزير علوم در مجلس گفت روند مهاجرت متخصصان ونخبگان از ايران بعد از واقعه كوي دانشگاه در 18 تير 1379 و ادامه بحران ها و تنش هاي سياسي در جامعه تشديد شده است. در ميان بيش از 60 كشور در حال توسعه در دنيا، ايران از نظر فرار مغز ها مقام اول را دارد و كمبود متخصص براي توسعه ايران مشكل آفرين خواهد شد.

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