لینک‌های قابلیت دسترسی

سه شنبه ۴ آبان ۱۳۹۵ تهران ۱۹:۱۱ - ۲۵ اکتبر ۲۰۱۶

لايحه مسئوليت رئيس جمهوري در اجراي قانون اساسي

مهدي خلجي

Summary of Today's BroadcastRFE/RL Persian ServiceTuesday, September 24, 2002 - Khatami seeks more presidential powers - Zarafshan's lawyer calls his trial unlawful - Students in prison - Azerbaijan-Syria accord on Caspian - Mandatory pre-marriage education - Anniversary of BP's Dismissal - MPs criticize management of Chamber of Commerce Khatami Submits Presidential Powers Bill to the Majles * In a bill submitted to the Majles today, President Khatami sought the power to oversee compliance with the Constitution in all three government branches, including the judiciary, as well as in institutions under the Supreme Leader, such as the armed forces, Guardians Council, Experts Assembly and religious-economic institutions, the endowments organization (Owqaf) and the Razavi shrine foundation. The bill would give the president the power to overturn court verdicts he finds contrary to the constitution. (Mehdi Khalaji) * Former Majles MP and Paris-based political commentator Ahmad Salamatian says Khatami's bill seeks the least amount of power the president would need to fulfill his constitutional duty. * Former Majles MP and Tehran University political science professor Qasem Sholeh-Saadi says Khatami's problem is not lack of powers but his inability to use the powers he has. (Siavash Ardalan) Zarafshan's Lawyer Responds to Judiciary * International human rights organizations, writers groups and political parties expressed solidarity with jailed lawyer Nasser Zarafshan. The judiciary's spokesman Mir-Mohammad Sadeqi said Zarafshan was not tried for his role as a lawyer for the relatives of the victims of the 1998 serial murders of dissidents by intelligence ministry agents. Zarafshan was convicted to five years in jail and 50 lashes for "revealing government secrets" during interviews with local newspapers and foreign radios criticizing the court's insufficient investigation into the serial murders. Mohammad-Ali Jedari-Forughi, Nasser Zarafshan's lawyer, tells RFE/RL that in Zarafshan's case, the Judiciary broke the law by assigning a military judge to the trial of a civilian. (Mehdi Khalaji) Students in Prison * Several student organizations criticized reformist MP Mohammad Musavi-Kho'ini-ha for his letter thanking judiciary chief Ayatollah Mahmud Hashemi-Shahrudi for letting two student activist leave jail on furlough. Hasan Zarehzadeh, spokesman for the students committee to defend political prisoners, tells RFE/RL that there are some 20 students still being held who were not mentioned in the Kho'ini-ha's letter to the judiciary. (Fereydoun Zarnegar) Azerbaijan and Syria Sign Caspian Accord * Defying Iran, Russia and Azerbaijan signed an accord demarcating their borders in the Caspian Sea. (Mani Kasravi, Moscow) * Washington-based international law consultant and expert on the Caspian Sea region Bahman Aqai-Diba tells RFE/RL that there is little Iran can do to press for its demand for at least 20 percent of the Caspian resources. Neither a maneuver to project military power, nor an appeal to international organizations, would help Iran, which faces opposition by both Russia and the US on this matter. (Homayoun Majd, Washington) Mandatory Pre-Marriage Education * A group of Majles MPs asked for mandatory pre-marriage education about sex and domestic life. Director of Tehran women's studies center Monir Amedi tells RFE/RL that women activists try to institutionalize matters that so far can not be discussed publicly and cannot be found in school curricula. (Mahmonir Rahimi) RFE/RL Special: Anniversary of Dismissal of British Oil Company * On the 151st anniversary of the dismissal of British Petroleum prior to the nationalization of the Iranian oil industry, RFE/RL begins a three-part series with Oxford University professor Homayoun Katouzian, author of several key books on the history of modern Iran. MPs Criticize Management of Tehran Chamber of Commerce * A group of MPs criticize the management of the Tehran chamber of commerce and industry for reaping personal profit from their positions at the chamber. Legally, the chamber of commerce is a private organization free of Majles scrutiny, but its budget comes from public funds. (Fereydoun Khavand, Paris) ARTS AND IDEAS Daily Internet Report * San Jose-based site www.siliconiran.com reports on successful Iranians in IT and high tech fields and puts Iranian-born jobseekers in touch with Iranian employers. (Behnam Nateghi) Daily medical advice (Dr. Mansur Moslehi, Los Angeles) Daily Book Review * RFE/RL's Tehran-based book critic Kamran Fani reviews a Persian translation of Bernard Lewis's "What Went Wrong," translated by Bahmandokht Ovaisi. Lamb or Militant * An exhibition in Berlin examines the resistance of German Jews to the Nazis. (Shahram Mirian, Cologne) Daily Science Report Head Lice * British Columbia University researcher Dr. Ahmad A. Ghavanin, former director of Iran's Health System Research Unit, and director of the Center for Research Consultation at the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, tells RFE/RL about his 1998 study on head lice in Norouzan, a village near Shiraz. He says shaving children's hair, which is common in Iran as a means to prevent head lice, can be effective. (Fatemeh Aman, Washington) WORLD * Nine Palestinians die as a result of Israel's military operations in the West Bank. (Jamshid Chalangi, Cairo) * UN Secretary General Kofi Anan calls Israeli operations in Ramallah a bankrupt policy. (Homayoun Majd, Washington) * The Israeli attack on Arafat's compound in Ramallah increases his popularity among Palestinians, writes the Washington Post. (Amir-Mosaddegh Katouzian) * British Prime Minister Tony Blair responds to the Labor and Conservative MPs opposed to military action in Iraq. (Fariba Mavedat, London) * Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld says he would refuse to meet German secretary of defense. (Shahram Mirian, Cologne) * Some in the US Congress and press warn the administration against unilateral military action against the Iraqi regime. (Homayoun Majd, Washington) * In an article in Le Monde on the possible US attack on Iraq, Iranian-born analyst Amir Jahanshahi says dictators cannot be tolerated in the 21st Century. (Jean Khakzad, Paris) * Kazem Saqieh writes in al-Hayat on the future of extremist Islamic groups in the post-September 11 world. (Farideh Rahbar, Cairo) * A Catholic priest in Milan airport collects sharp objects confiscated from airline passengers and ships them to poor African countries for charity. (Ahmad Ra'fat, Rome)مهدي خلجي (راديوآزادي): لايحه مسئوليت رييس جمهوري در اجراي قانون اساسي، بر اين فرض استوار است که در قانون اساسي رييس جمهوري در کنار رياست قوه مجريه، دو شأن ديگر نيز دارد: يکي اين که بالاترين مقام رسمي کشور است و ديگر آن که مسئول اجراي قانون اساسي است و به اين اعتبار مقام رييس جمهوري با مقام رووساي قواي مقننه و قضاييه متفاوت است. هدف اصلي اين لايحه تبيين ضمانت اجرايي مسئوليت رييس جمهوري در اجراي قانون اساسي است، چون در قانون اساسي جمهوري اسلامي سازوکاري براي انجام گرفتن اين مسئوليت جز تذکر و اخطار پيش بيني نشده است. بر اساس اين لايحه در صورت توقف، نقض يا عدم اجراي اصلي از اصول قانون اساسي، رييس جمهوري ميتواند ضمن دستور توقف تصميمات و اقدامات انجام شده بر خلاف قانون اساسي، مراتب را به اطلاع بالاترين مقام مسوول مربوطه در هر يك از قوا و نهادهاي حكومتي برساند و علت توقف، نقض يا عدم اجرا را خواستار گردد و مقام مسوول موظف است در اسرع وقت مناسب، حداكثر ظرف مدت دو ماه، پاسخ خود را مشروحا و با ذكر دليل به اطلاع رييس جمهوري برساند، در صورتي كه پس از بررسي و تشخيص رييس جمهوري ، توقف يا نقض يا عدم اجرا همچنان ثابت باشد، رييس جمهوري دستور توقف تصميمات و اقدامات انجام شده بر خلاف قانون اساسي را صادر مينمايد و پرونده امر را براي تعقيب متخلف، به مراجع صالح اداري و قضايي ارسال ميدارد. متخلف براي بار اول يك تا سه سال و در صورت تكرار به انفصال دائم از خدمات دولتي محكوم ميشود. هم چنين در اين لايحه آمده است در صورتي كه به تشخيص رييس جمهوري ، پس از بررسي هاي كارشناسي تصميم قضايي صادره از سوي مراجع قضايي، مغاير قانون اساسي باشد، رييس جمهوري درخواست نقض آن را به شعبهاي خاص در ديوان عالي كشور متشكل از يك رييس و دو مستشار به انتخاب هيات عمومي ديوان عالي كشور كه همگي داراي پايه ?? قضايي باشند ارجاع ميدهد و قضات شعبه مزبور آن را رسيدگي مي کنند و نظر اكثريت قضات ملاك عمل خواهد بود. هنگام رسيدگي هياتي مركب از سه حقوقدان به انتخاب مجلس شوراي اسلامي و سه حقوقدان به انتخاب هيات وزيران در جلسه حضور خواهند داشت و نظرات و توضيحات خود را به شعبه ارائه خواهند كرد. بنا بر لايحه مسئوليت رييس جمهوري در اجراي قانون اساسي، درخواست رييس جمهوري براي نقض تصميم قضايي موجب توقف اجراي آن و آثار و تبعات آن تا پايان رسيدگي ميشود. کليدي ترين بخش اين لايحه شايد تصريح بر اين نکته است که به منظور اجراي صحيح و دقيق قانون اساسي، رييس جمهوري حق دارد به بالاترين مقام هر يك از نهادهاي حكومتي و قواي سه گانه تذكر و اخطار دهد و در صورت ترتيب اثر ندادن به اخطارها رييس جمهوري مي تواند از سازوکاري که در اين لايحه آمده براي موثر کردن اخطار خود استفاده کند. لايحه مسئوليت رييس جمهوري در اجراي قانون اساسي، نظارت کامل رييس جمهوري ي را بر عملکرد سه قوه کشور و نهادهاي حکومتي مانند نيروهاي مسلح، شوراي نگهبان، مجلس خبرگان، بنيادهاي اقتصادي خارج از دولت، اوقاف و آستان قدس رضوي آسان و عملي مي کند. ناظران سياسي اين احتمال را نيرومند مي دانند که در روزهاي آينده بحث بر سر محتواي اين لايحه و به ويزه ابهامات آن در باره مناسبات رهبري و رياست جمهوري بالا خواهد گرفت و موضوع تازه اي براي چالش جناح هاي سياسي ايران خواهد شد.

لايحه مسئوليت رييس جمهوري در اجراي قانون اساسي، نظارت کامل رييس جمهوري را بر عملکرد سه قوه کشور و نهادهاي حکومتي مانند نيروهاي مسلح، شوراي نگهبان، مجلس خبرگان، بنيادهاي اقتصادي خارج از دولت، اوقاف و آستان قدس رضوي آسان و عملي مي کند. در روزهاي آينده بحث بر سر محتواي اين لايحه و به ويزه ابهامات آن در باره مناسبات رهبري و رياست جمهوري بالا خواهد گرفت.

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