لینک‌های قابلیت دسترسی

شنبه ۱ آبان ۱۳۹۵ تهران ۰۵:۴۵ - ۲۲ اکتبر ۲۰۱۶

صف آرايي جديد دو جناح بر سر لايحه مربوط به اختيارات رياست جمهوري

سياوش اردلان

Summary of Today's BroadcastRFE/RL Persian ServiceSeptember 25, 2002 - Expansion of presidential powers - Local councils' law reform - PEN international's solidarity with Zarafshan - Majles MP criticizes Iran's Caspian policy - Iran approves new British ambassador - The only women's only hospital closes - Judiciary blocks music by women - Arrest of judicial lobbyists - French numbers on Iran's economy - RFE/RL Roundtable: Expansion of presidential powers bill Factions Face-Off over Bill to Expand Presidential Powers * Submitting to the Majles the bill to "clarify" the president's powers yesterday, the reformists indicated to their conservative opponents that they would not allow this bill to go away after a veto by the Guardians Council. But the Guardians announced on Wednesday that they would reject the bill if the reformists did not withdraw it. The reformists now worry that the Supreme Leader himself might oppose the bill. (Siavash Ardalan) Majles Ends Pay for City Council Members * The Majles approved a provision in the government's bill to reform the local councils' law that would eliminate salaries for council members. Mehdi Kaveh, a Tehran City Council advisor, tells RFE/RL that in the large cities, council members' duties are more than they can accomplish even when they work full time. He says the approval of the new bill by the reformist majority of the Majles indicates that the Participation Front (Jebheh-ye Mosharekat) and the Construction Executives (Kargozaran-e Sazandegi), the two reformist parties with the largest blocs in the Majles, have prevailed on the future role of the local councils. These two parties would like the local councils to act as boards of directors rather than local parliaments. He adds that using a provision of the current law, local governments sidestepped local councils whenever they wished, making the councils ineffective. (Jamshid Zand) PEN International Calls for Nasser Zarafshan's Freedom * At their annual gathering in Macedonia, which ended today, members of PEN international approved a resolution asking for the immediate release from jail of Nasser Zarafshan, lawyer of the relatives of the victims of the 1998 serial assassinations of dissidents by intelligence ministry agents. Frankfurt-based writer and PEN member Faraj Sarkuhi tells RFE/RL that the resolution would trigger solidarity with Nasser Zarafshan by PEN chapters around the world. He adds that the international PEN has been active on this case from the beginning. Its resolution today calls for travel to Iran by PEN envoys to look into the government's investigation of the serial murders. (Shireen Famili) MP Kulai Condemns Russia-Azerbaijan Agreement on the Caspian * Tehran MP Elaheh Kulai, speaker of the Majles national security and foreign relations committee, who accompanied Khatami at the Caspian summit in Ashgabat last spring, criticized Russia's bilateral agreements with two of five Caspian littoral states. She asked the government to consult with the Majles on the Caspian negotiations. She said although Iran is the only country that can link the Caspian Sea to the Indian Ocean, the government's only accomplishment in the area has been losing Iran's opportunities to others. (Jamshid Zand) Iran Approves Britain's New Ambassador * After seven months of refusing to propose a new candidate, Britain on Tuesday named its former envoy to Libya, Sir Richard Dalton, as its new ambassador to Tehran. Foreign ministry spokesman Hamid-Reza Asefi said Iran welcomes the exchange of ambassadors, which would increase mutual ties. Dalton replaced David Reddaway, Britain's initial choice, whom Iran rejected after conservative newspapers accused him of membership in Britain's secret service. The rejection created a rift in UK-Iran relations not seen since the 1989 death verdict against Salman Rushdi. (Fariba Mavedat, London) * Lord Peter Temple-Morris, head of inter-party Iran-UK relations parliamentary group and head of Iran-UK chamber of commerce, tells RFE/RL that the Iranian government had the right to reject Reddaway's nomination, but that did not constitute a defeat for the British government. He adds that the UK believes that expansion of diplomatic and trade relations with Iran would eventually strengthen the reformists. (Amir-Mosaddegh Katouzian) Qom's Women Only Hospital Closes * Iran's experiment with same sex medicine has failed with the closing of the country's first and only unisex hospital, Qom's Shahid Beheshti hospital, a unit of Iran's only medical school for women, Qom's Fatemieh. Akbar Karami, a doctor in Qom, tells RFE/RL that the hospital's closure is positive since otherwise new Taliban-like projects to separate sexes would have been followed. He says the hospital began under the Shah as Iran's most advanced hospital. He adds that a Kuwaiti group may buy the property and turn it into a hotel. (Mehdi Khalaji) RFE/RL Special: Anniversary of Dismissal of British Oil Company * On the 151st anniversary of the dismissal of British Petroleum prior to the nationalization of the Iranian oil industry, RFE/RL continues its three-part series with Oxford University professor Homayoun Katouzian, author of several key books on the history of modern Iran. Kharrazi on Possible US Attack on Iraq * FM Kamal Kharrazi said in an interview with al-Sharq-ul-Awsat newspaper that Iran would not object to a possible US attack on Iraq, provided that the UN sanctions it. (Farideh Rahbar, Cairo) Judiciary Blocks Music by Women * The judiciary blocks tapes of musical performances by women, even though they have received distribution permits from the culture ministry. The conservative Jomhuri-ye Eslami newspaper criticized the culture ministry for allowing music with women's voice to be distributed. Tehran-based composer and performer Maliheh Saeedi, who heads a Tehran girls music academy tells RFE/RL that it took her 18 months to receive permission from the culture ministry for her latest album "Ahu-ye Vahshi (Wild Gazelle)," performed by a women's chorus. Jomhuri-ye Eslami called the tape "depraved." She said her next album is not being distributed even though it has received permission. (Mahmonir Rahimi) Civil Society and Human Rights: Arrest of Judicial Lobbyists * Washington-based lawyer and human rights activist Mehrangiz Kar comments on the recent arrest in Tehran of 273 judicial lobbyists. French Economy Ministry's Figures on Iran's Economy * The foreign economic relations office of France's economy, finance and industries ministry today issued a five-page report on the Iranian economy showing that the trade deficit has decreased from $12 billion in 1999 to $5 billion in 2001, and the country's inflation rate dropped to 11 percent from 20 percent during the same period. However, foreign investments in Iran in 2001 did not exceed $260 million. (Fereydoun Khavand, Paris) RFE/RL Roundtable: Presidential Powers Bill * Tehran-based lawyer Nemat Ahmadi, Paris-based lawyer and human rights activist Abdolkarim Lahiji and MP Mohammad Shahi Arablu, member of the Majles economy and finance committee, discuss the new bill submitted to the Majles to increase presidential powers. (Fereydoun Zarnegar) ARTS AND IDEAS Daily Internet Report Modeling and Ranking Photos of Others * Providing an opportunity for everyone to admire the beauty of Persian women, London-based Parsmodels.com offers portfolios of Iranian-born British models. But on aksrate.com and gherti.com, Iranians can post their own images or images of their friends and rank photos posted on these sites by others. Some put up images of their children to be judged by others, and some young Iranian girls have gathered over 2000 votes ranking them as "average." (Behnam Nateghi, NY) Daily medical advice (Dr. Mansur Moslehi, Los Angeles) Daily Book Review * RFE/RL's Tehran-based book critic reviews a new novel by satirical writer Mohammad Qasemzadeh called "the Eighth City." Daily Science Report * For $1.14 million, Craig Venter, who helped decipher the human genome plans to provide details of a person's genes within a week. Armed with such information, the individual would be able to check for genetic changes linked with illnesses such as cancer and Alzheimer's. (Fatemeh Aman, Washington) Shadi (Joy) * Los Angeles DJ Afshin Gorgin spins the latest Persian tunes. New York Magazine * Larry Rivers, painter and musician who died at the age of 78. (Behnam Nateghi, New York) * Interview with Le Monde's UN correspondent Afsane Bassirpour who lives the job after 15 years to head Le Monde's Geneva bureau. (Behnam Nateghi, New York) WORLD * Israeli Foreign Minister Shimon Perez said despite a UN Security Council resolution, Israel would not leave Ramallah. (Jamshid Chalangi, Cairo) * Bush asks UN for a tough resolution against Iraq. (Homayoun Majd, Washington) * US-German dispute over Iraq. (Shahram Mirian, Cologne) * Italian PM backs US on Iraq. (Ahmad Ra'fat, Rome) * NATO defense ministers end Warsaw meeting. (Homayoun Majd, Washington) * Western press articles on important issues of the day. (Fariba Mavedat, London) * Al-Sharq-ul-Awsat reports on Iraqi people at the threshold of another war. (Jamshid Chalangi, Cairo) * Thomas Friedman writes about Ariel Sharon in the New York Times. (Fariba Mavedat, London)سياوش اردلان (راديوآزادي): ٍصف آرايي جديد دو جناح حاكم بر سر لايحه مربوط به اختيارات رياست جمهوري شكل ميگيرد. هنوز نه جناح اصلاح طلب برآورد روشني از ميزان مقاومت حريفان محافظه كار در برابر اين لايحه دارد نه محافظه كاران ميدانند دوم خردادي ها چقدر مصممند پاي لايحه بايستد. تشريفاتي غير معمولي كه دولت روز سه شنبه براي تسليم لايحه به مجلس به خرج داد، اين پيام را براي محافظه كاران داشت كه چنين لايحه اي ديگر با يك وتوي شوراي نگهبان بر زمين نخواهد ماند. اما پيام محافظه كاران هم صريح بود. روزنامه جمهوري اسلامي كه نزديك به بيت رهبري محسوب ميشود روز چهارشنبه با لحني قاطع نوشت: "شوراي نگهبان لايحه تبيين حدود اختيارات رياست جمهوري را رد خواهد كرد و بهتر است رييس جمهور لايحه را پس بگيرد يا نمايندگان ان را مسكوت بگذارند". نگراني از اينكه خود رهبري عليه لايحه موضعگيري كند، در ذهن و ضمير جناح اصلاح طلب سنگيني ميكند. محافظه كاران و حتي برخي اصلاح طلبان غير حكومتي آنقدر به لايحه ايرادهاي سياسي و حقوقي گرفته اند كه به نظر نميرسد شوراي نگهبان براي رد آن نتواند به دلايل كافي استناد كند. هنوز هيچ يك از مسيولان شوراي نگهبان واكنشي نشان نداده اند اما غلامحسين الهام، از مسيولان دفتر حقوقي شوراي نگهبان گفته است، "اين لايحه توازن قواي سه گانه را بر هم ميزند". در لايحه بحث انگيز دولت، به رييس جمهور اين اختيار داده شده كه براي اجراي قانون اساسي به ديگر مسيولان رده بالاي حكومتي اخطار دهد و حتي تا بركناري انها پيش برود. ميتوان از هم آينك بحث هاي حقوقي و سياسي فراواني را درباره اصل تفكيك قوا و نقش رهبر و رييس جمهور در قانون اساسي از طرف هر دو جناح و كارشناسان انتظار كشيد. با اين حال رهبران جناح دوم خرداد طوري حرف ميزند كه گويي اين لايحه اتمام حجت انها با محافظه كاران است هر چند روز چهار شنبه سخنگوي دولت در پاسخ به اين پرسش كه "اگر لايحه رد شود چكار ميكنيد؟" ترجيح داد پاسخ دهد، "چرا شما ميخواهيد نيمه خالي ليوان را ببينيد؟". اما محمد رضا خاتمي، دبير كل جبهه مشاركت، روز سه شنبه پس از دريافت لايحه دولت گفت، "اگر طرف مقابل كار را به تنش بكشاند، چاره اي جز كنار كشيدن نيست". گفته محمد رضا خاتمي اشاره دارد به اقداماتي كه اصلاح طلبان ميخواهند در صورت رد شدن لايحه انجام دهند مثل همه پرسي و خروج از حاكميت. بر خلاف اصلاح طلبان، مسولان كليدي جناح راست، از تصميمات احتمالي خود سخني نرانده اند. ناظران چند احتمال را در مورد برخورد محافظه كاران پيش بيني ميكنند: رد كامل لايحه، تغيير ان به گونه اي كه از محتوايش تهي شود و يا دست روي دست گذاشتن يا باصطلاح كش دادن قضيه در روندي فرسايشي. بازيگران اصلي حركت هاي خود را كرده اند، اينك نوبت پياده نيروهايي چون مطبوعات و مسيولان رده دوم است تا دوباره نوبت به بازيگران اصلي برسد.

تشريفات غير معمولي كه دولت روز سه شنبه براي تسليم لايحه تببين اختيارات رئيس جمهوري به مجلس به خرج داد، اين پيام را براي محافظه كاران داشت كه چنين لايحه اي ديگر با يك وتوي شوراي نگهبان بر زمين نخواهد ماند. اما پيام محافظه كاران هم صريح بود. روزنامه جمهوري اسلامي، كه نزديك به بيت رهبري محسوب مي شود، روز چهارشنبه با لحني قاطع نوشت: «شوراي نگهبان لايحه تبيين حدود اختيارات رياست جمهوري را رد خواهد كرد و بهتر است رييس جمهوري هم لايحه را پس بگيرد يا نمايندگان آن را مسكوت بگذارند.» نگراني از اينكه شايد خود رهبري عليه لايحه موضعگيري كند، در ذهن و ضمير جناح اصلاح طلب سنگيني مي كند.

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