لینک‌های قابلیت دسترسی

شنبه ۱ آبان ۱۳۹۵ تهران ۰۹:۲۰ - ۲۲ اکتبر ۲۰۱۶

بررسي لايحه تبيين اختيارات رئيس جمهوري در كميسيون مشترك مجلس شوراي اسلامي

فريدون زرنگار

Summary of Today's BroadcastRFE/RL Persian ServiceFriday, October 18, 2002 - Bill to expand presidential powers - Tehran to benefit from US attack on Iraq - Mines threaten villagers near Iraqi border - Iran-Azerbaijan dispute on the Caspian oil field Alborz - Swedish Lawyer to defend Zarafshan - Social vices court closes - Islamic propaganda organization gets tea import monopoly - Writer Mansur Koushan in Oslo - Government wires 6500 classes for the Internet - Caspian ancient yew trees - Rich-poor gap widens despite socialist programs Presidential Powers Expansion Bill * A special Majles committee began reviewing President Khatami's bill to expand presidential powers. Gholam-Hossein Elham, head of the Guardians Council research center, said with this bill, the president seeks authority without responsibility and the power to block other government branches. Reformists say the bill only defines the powers already vested in the presidency by the constitution. Jiroft MP said the Guardians Council will send the bill back to the Majles, and back and forth it will go until the end of Khatami's term in power. (Fereydoun Zarnegar) Tehran Stands to Benefit from the Possible US Attack on Iraq * Iran stands to benefit from the downfall of Saddam Hussein and destruction of its Iraq-based armed opposition, the People's Mojahedin (MKO), but is concerned that US presence in Iraq would expand US influence in Iran, the Reuters news agency writes from Tehran. (Jamshid Zand) Mines Threaten Farmers Near Iraqi Border * Fourteen years after the Iran-Iraq war, only 14 of 75 border area villages have been cleared of mines. Head of Qasr-e Shirin city council said of the 65,000 residents, more than 40,000 have left town since the war. (Golnaz Esfandiari) Iran-Azerbaijan Joint Exploitation of Alborz Oil Fields * Mehdi Safari, Iran's special envoy for the Caspian affairs, said joint exploitation can be a solution to the Iran-Azerbaijan dispute over the Alborz offshore oilfield. But according to RFE/RL's Michael Lelyveld, the prospect of cooperation between the two countries are weak, considering that Azerbaijan's partners are mostly American and Canadian oil companies. (Jamshid Zand) Swedish Human Rights Lawyer Defends Zarafshan and his Lawyer * Jailed lawyer Nasser Zarafshan's lawyer Mohammad-Ali Jedari Forughi tells RFE/RL that Swedish lawyer Klaus Fauschberg, of Sweden's Lawyers Without Borders, will defend he and Zarafshan in international human rights societies. He adds that Zarafshan will soon publish an open letter in response to the judiciary's recent statement about his case. (Golnaz Esfandiari) Social Vice Court Closes * A branch of Tehran courts in Vozara avenue that dealt with social vices, such as prostitution, arrested unmarried young couples and Islamic dress code violations, closed yesterday. Tehran-based lawyer Ahmad Bashiri tells RFE/RL that having a branch of court to deal only with social vices was against the law. Also, people in this residential neighborhood complained about the traffic and noise from the crowds around the courts' building. (Shireen Famili) Islamic Propaganda Organization Gets Tea Imports Monopoly * The right to import tea was transferred from the national tea authority to the Islamic propaganda organization (Sazeman-e Tablighat-e Eslami), according to the head of the association of tea merchants and distributors. Lahijan-based tea market expert Ahmad Danesh-Pazir tells RFE/RL that the Islamic propaganda organization has no experience in importing tea. He adds that on paper and according to the law, only the national tea authority (Sazeman-e Cha-ye Keshvar) has the right to import tea, but the law was never properly implemented. He says the transfer of monopoly to the propaganda organization notwithstanding, tea is imported into Iran by a Mafia which is known to everyone and too powerful to be mentioned. (Fereydoun Zarnegar) Writer Koushan in Oslo * Mansur Koushan, exiled member of the Iranian Writers Association, tells RFE/RL in an interview from Oslo, Norway, that police's recent copying of the records of the association board meetings would have no consequences, since the association has nothing to hide. (Shahram Mirian, Cologne) 6500 Government School Classes Wire for Internet * Education ministry plans to wire 6500 high school classes for access to the Internet. Private schools' access to the Internet has widened the gap between public and private education. (Said Peyvandi, Paris) Caspian Yew Trees in Danger of Extinction * The destruction of Caspian forests through excessive logging and deforestation has ruined some unique examples of yew trees left from the Third Ice Age, according to forestry expert Mohammad-Reza Lesani. He tells RFE/RL that cattle ranchers cut the trees since their leaves can poison the herd. (Jamshid Zand) Rich-Poor Gap Widens Despite Socialist Economic Policies * Unequal distribution of income and economic opportunities have widened the rich-poor gap, indicating the failure of the socialist economic policies enacted by the post-revolutionary government during the past 23 years. These policies include land distribution, nationalization of industries and banking in the name of the dispossessed, heavy subsidies for food, energy and medicine, price controls, anti-poverty programs and establishing huge bureaucracies to provide help to the poor. (Fereydoun Khavand) RFE/RL Roundtable: Social Disobedience * Georgetown University professor and democratic left activist Mehrdad Mashayekhi; Berlin-based nationalist commentator and former Tehran University professor Ahmad Tahmasbi; and nationalist-religious activist Taqi Rahmani in Tehran discuss social disobedience as a means to bring democracy to Iran. (Amir-Mosaddegh Katouzian) ARTS AND IDEAS Daily Internet Report * Iran Economic Info, www.ieicenter.com, a new bilingual internet site, offers economic news and data, as well as discussion forum, but does little to reach its ambitious goal. (Behnam Nateghi, New York) Daily medical advice (Dr. Mansur Moslehi, Los Angeles) Daily Book Review * RFE/RL's Tehran-based book critic Kamran Fani reviews "Beyond Blame: Memories of Abbas Amir-Entezam." The first post-revolutionary cabinet spokesman, Amir-Entezam is the longest held political prisoner in Iran. Daily Science Report * A team of genetic scientists at UCLA work on closing a 4767 year old cedar, discovered in 1950 by Edmond Schulman in the 1950s in southern California. (Fatemeh Aman, Washington) Song: Sima Bina's Parishan (Anxious) * RFE/RL's Frankfurt-based music critic plays Parishan (Anxious), performed by the 1960s popular singer Sima Bina. Shadi (Joy) * Los Angeles DJ Afshin Gorgin spins the latest Persian tunes. RFE/RL's Middle East Magazine * Opening of the new Alexandria library, Al-Azhar university's old Islamic manuscripts on the Internet, presidential referendum in Iraq, an Islamic court's verdict about a Christian woman in Jordan, as well as a selection of the latest Arabic pop tunes from Cairo's top ten chart. (Farideh Rahbar and Jamshid Chalangi, Cairo) WORLD * North Korea admitted that in violation of its international commitments, it has been developing nuclear weapons. (Homayoun Majd, Washington) * US prepared a draft of the UN Security Council resolution on Iraq. (Homayoun Majd, Washington) * Russia's UN envoy said no evidence has been seen to indicate Iraq has mass destruction weapons or has aided international terrorism. (Mani Kasravi, Moscow) * Presidents of Egypt and Syria warn US against unilateral military action against Iraq. (Farideh Rahbar, Cairo) * Plans to establish a US military government to run Iraq would isolate European allies and stop them from taking part in the US-led military coalition against Iraq, wrote the Washington Post. Britain and other US allies have reservations about the plan, wrote China daily. (Fariba Mavedat, London) * Russia's intelligence minister visits Kabul. (Mani Kasravi, Moscow) * An Italian MP proposed heavy taxation of pornography as a means to cover the budget deficit. (Ahmad Ra'fat, Rome) * More then 60 percent of Americans support a possible military attack on Iraq. (Homayoun Majd, Washington)فريدون زرنگار (راديوآزادي): محمد خاتمي رئيس جمهوري در آخرين مصاحبه مطبوعاتي خود با تكيه بر اينكه تذكرات وي در مورد نقض قانون اساسي تا بحال بي نتيجه مانده است اعلام كرد بزودي لايحه تبيين اختيارات رياست جمهوري را به به مجلس خواهد داد و در پي اين وعده هيات وزيران در بيست و هفتم شهريور ماه گذشته اين لايحه را تصويب و به مجلس تقديم كرد. در آستانه بررسي اين لايحه در مجلس اظهار نظرهاي موافق و مخالف با آن ابعاد تازه اي بخود گرفته است . محافظه كاران همچنان بر نظر خود نسبت به ضعف هاي اين لايحه تكيه ميكنند و ميگويند در صورت تصويب اين لايحه قدرت رئيس جمهوري زياد ميشود و از اين طريق راه براي استبداد هموار ميشود. بنظر محافظه كاران حدود اختيارات رئيس جمهوري در قانون اساسي پيش بيني شده و روشن است و ديگر احتياجي به چنين لايحه اي نيست ازجمله عباس كعبي نماينده آبادان در مجلس خبرگان رهبري گفته است مفهوم مسئوليت اجراي قانون اساسي به معني پاسخ گوئي رئيس جمهور است نه نظارت ، پرسشگري و يا تشخيص نقض قانون اساسي زيرا نظارت و تشخيص از وظايف قوه قضائيه است . بگفته اين نماينده مجلس خبرگان اين لايحه اصل تفكيك قوا را خدشه دار مي كند. غلامحسين الهام رئيس مركز تحقيقات و پژوهشهاي شوراي نگهبان نيز مي گويد رئيس جمهور دنبال اختيارات بي مسئوليت براي توقف اختيارات ديگر قوا است . او تا آنجا پيش ميرود كه ميگويد بگفته وي اگر دو لايحه ارائه شده از سوي رئيس جمهوري تصويب شوند نه از مردم و نه از قانون اساسي نشاني ميماند. وي خاستگاه اصلي لايحه هاي ارائه شده را حمايت از تعدادي از زندانيان خاص كه بدليل ايجاد مشكل براي امنيت و استقلال كشور در زندان بسر مي برند، مي داند. در مقابل، اصلاح طلبان با اذعان به اينكه لايحه تبيين اختيارات رياست جمهوري ميتواند داراي نقائصي باشد ميگويند اين لايحه با هدف جلوگيري از نقض حقوق ملت تهيه شده و رئيس جمهور موظف است جلو نقض قانون اساسي را بگيرد بنابراين يا بايد با تصويب اين لايحه به نقض قانون اساسي و مخدوش شدن حقوق ملت پايان داده شود و يا خاتمي نميتواند رئيس جمهور بماند. آيت اله عبائي خراساني نماينده مشهد در مجلس در پاسخ به محافظه كاران ميگويد تصويب لايحه تبيين اختيارات رياست جمهوري قوه قضائيه را نه تنها تضعيف نميكند بلكه آنرا قوت هم مي بخشد. بدين ترتيب به نظر مي رسد كه سرنوشت لايحه هاي ارائه شده از سوي رئيس جمهوري از پيش رقم خورده باشد و مدت به سر انجام رسيدن آن در چنبره بحث هاي حقوقي كه بين نهادهاي قانون گزاري ردوبدل ميشود بسيار طولاني گردد. به گفته نماينده جيرفت در مجلس شوراي اسلامي در صورت تصويب لايحه تبيين اختيارات رياست جمهوري از سوي مجلس ، شوراي نگهبان اين لايحه را تاييد نخواهد كرد. وي پيش بيني ميكند كه اين لايحه حد اقل پنج بار بين مجلس و شوراي نگهبان رد وبدل خواهد شد و زمان تصميم گيري نهائي بر سر اين لايحه آنچنان طولاني خواهد شد كه در دوره رياست جمهوري محمد خاتمي قابل اجرا نخواهد بود.

در آستانه بررسي لايحه تبيين اختيارات رياست جمهوري در مجلس اظهار نظرهاي موافق و مخالف با آن ابعاد تازه اي بخود گرفته است . محافظه كاران مي گويند در صورت تصويب اين لايحه راه براي استبداد رياست جمهوري هموار مي شود. غلامحسين الهام، رئيس مركز تحقيقات و پژوهشهاي شوراي نگهبان گفت رئيس جمهوري دنبال اختيارات بي مسئوليت براي توقف اختيارات ديگر قوا است. به گفته وي اگر دو لايحه ارائه شده از سوي رئيس جمهوري تصويب شوند، از حق مردم و قانون اساسي نشاني نمي ماند. در مقابل اصلاح طلبان مي گويند اين لايحه با هدف جلوگيري از نقض حقوق ملت تهيه شده است. به گفته نماينده جيرفت در مجلس شوراي اسلامي، در صورت تصويب لايحه تبيين اختيارات رياست جمهوري از سوي مجلس ، شوراي نگهبان اين لايحه را تاييد نخواهد كرد. وي پيش بيني كرد كه اين لايحه حد اقل پنج بار بين مجلس و شوراي نگهبان رد وبدل شود و زمان تصميم گيري نهائي بر سر اين لايحه آنچنان طولاني خواهد شد كه در دوره رياست جمهوري محمد خاتمي قابل اجرا نخواهد بود.

در همین زمینه