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شنبه ۳ مهر ۱۴۰۰ تهران ۱۹:۴۲

ايران و آمريكا: آمادگي آمريكا براي مذاكره و فشارهاي اقتصادي آمريكا بر جمهوري اسلامي

سياوش اردلان

Summary of Today's BroadcastRFE/RL Persian ServiceWednesday, June 05, 2002 - US economic pressures on Iran increase - A look back at the June '62 anti-Shah uprising - Asians beat Iranian producers in domestic & foreign markets - Renting magazine publishing licenses - Palestinian Authority implicates Iran in Israeli bus bombing - UAE's ban on imports of Iranian livestock hurts ranchers US Tightens Iran's Economic Squeeze * The US State Department Spokesman said yesterday that the US is ready to talk to Iran about its support for terrorism and its development of mass destruction weapons. Meanwhile, the US tightened its economic pressures on Iran by forcing Moody's Investors Service to pull Iran's credit ratings and by offering political and financial support for the Baku-Ceyhan oil pipeline which Iran opposes. Also, Rep.Tom Lantos (D-Calif) sponsored a non-binding congressional resolution yesterday to impose sanctions on the Canadian company Sheer Energy for its last week's $80 million agreement with Iran to develop the Masjed Soleiman oil field. (Siavash Ardalan) June 1962 Anti-Shah Uprising Remembered In interviews with RFE/RL, three commentators review the impact of the June 5, 1962 anti-Shah uprising in Iran, which led to Ayatollah Khomeini's exile in Iraq. * Paris-based political commentator Ahmad Salamatian, a former post-revolutionary MP, says the June 1962 anti-Shah uprising followed Ayatollah Khomeini's arrest on the Shiites' holiest day. Khomeini had increased his criticism of the Shah, hoping to gain both the support of dissident intellectuals and to secure his bid to succeed Ayatollah Borujerdi, the leader of Iranian Shiites who had died 18 months earlier. On that day, the Shah lost the clergy as one of his main pillars of support. * Germany-based political commentator Hasan Shariatmadari, whose father Grand Ayatollah Kazem Shariatmadari pleaded with the Shah for the release of Ayatollah Khomeini from jail, says the Shiite clergy's opposition to the Shah's social and economic reforms was only a ploy to gain control of the anti-Shah opposition in the country. * Paris-based political commentator Babak Amirkhosravi says the June 1962 uprising marked a break between the monarchy and the clergy. China, Taiwan, Thailand and South Korea Flood Iran with Goods * Iranian producers face tough competition from developing countries that only a couple of decades ago were far behind Iran in industrial development. China, South Korea, Taiwan and Turkey flood Iran's market with textiles, consumer electronics and construction materials. A few years ago, China devastated Iranian producers with its cheaper, more durable light bulbs. Tehran daily Abrar reported today that two domestic producers of cement and communications cables are on the verge of bankruptcy after losing to China in bidding for major government contracts. China now competes with Iran in Afghanistan's emerging market for cement. Some in Iran suggest tighter support for domestic producers as a solution, but RFE/RL's Paris-based economic commentator Fereydoun Khavand says that more protectionism would not address the cause of the problem, which is the lack of investment in Iranian industries. Two Film Magazines "Guilty" of License Renting * The press court jury found holders of the publishing licenses of two banned film magazines, the weekly "Gozaresh-e Film" and the monthly "Honar-e Haftom" (Seventh Art), guilty of renting their licenses to others. The prosecutor general said in his indictment that the two allowed their licenses to be used for printing "indecent materials" and promoting "pornographic" films. Novelist Abbas Marufi, editor of the banned literary monthly Gardun, tells RFE/RL that renting publishing licenses has been a common practice in Iranian journalism since before the revolution, because only those with connections to power can obtain them. (Mehdi Khalaji) Palestinian Authority Implicates Tehran in Israeli Bus Attack * Samir Rantisi, a Palestinian Authority spokesperson, said today in an interview with the BBC World Service that the Islamic Republic was involved in the planning and organization of yesterday's attack on an Israeli bus that killed 16. The Islamic Jihad claimed credit for the attack. Rantisi, who used to be the chief of security of Ramallah, told BBC that Tehran supports the Islamic Jihad and that its leader Ramazan Shalakh planned the bombing during his current visit to Iran. This is the first time that a PA official has directly implicated Iran in terrorist attacks within Israel. (Jamshid Chalangi, Cairo) Pelletreau on US-Iran Relations * Former Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern Affairs Robert Pelletreau tells RFE/RL that Leader Ayatollah Khamenei's recent harsh words against contacts with the US were to be expected and were probably directed less at the US than at domestic advocates of US relations. (Homayoun Majd, Washington) Azerbaijan Arrests Four after Memorial for Khomeini * Villagers in Nardaran, 25 km from Baku, clashed with the police protesting the arrest earlier of four after a ceremony on the 13th anniversary of Ayatollah's Khomeini's death. (Alireza Taheri) UAE Ban on Iranian Livestock * Cattle ranchers in Iran and livestock exporters are directly affected by the UAE's ban last week of Iranian livestock. (Baktash Khamsehpour) WORLD * Mubarak and Sharon to visit US. (Homayoun Majd, Washington) * Sixteen die in a terrorist attack on bus in Israel. (Jamshid Chalangi, Cairo) * UN Secretary General visits Moscow to discuss India-Pakistan conflict. (Mani Kasravi, Moscow) * Pakistan rejects India's offer for joint border inspections. (Siavash Ardalan) * Casualties from a nuclear war between India and Pakistan would be much greater than Hiroshima. (Alireza Taheri) * Environmental protection officials from around the world gather in Bali to prepare the draft of a plan for sustainable development. (Jamshid Zand) * Azerbaijan's goal in the 9th oil and gas expo in Baku is to replace British Petroleum with another company, and to find money for the Baku-Ceyhan oil pipeline. (Mani Kasravi, Moscow) * Dam break in Syria destroys hundreds of homes. (Farideh Rahbar, Cairo) * Two-thirds of Albania's entire population participated in the green card lottery. One in 2000 has a shot at a US immigration visa. (Ahmad Ra'fat, Rome) ARTS AND IDEAS RFE/RL's Daily Coverage of Soccer World Cup * Round up of today's World Cup games by RFE/RL's soccer commentator. (Mehrdad Masudi, Seoul) Weekly Science Magazine New Malaria Mosquitoes through Genetic Engineering * A team of scientist from Case Western Reserve University, led by Dr. Marcello Jacobs-Lorena, has devised a genetic engineering technique to develop mosquitoes with a severely impaired ability to transmit malaria. Vaccine development has so far proven unsuccessful and the parasites carried by the mosquitoes have become resistant to drugs. Scientists hope that such genetically modified mosquitoes will replace the natural population within a few years. In an interview with RFE/RL, Dr. Jacobs-Lorena from Case Western Reserve University, Dr. Gareth Lycett of the European Molecular Biology Laboratory in Heidelberg, Germany, and Dr. Nahid Tayebi from the US National Institute of Health explain the process and its implications. (Fatemeh Aman, Washington) Growing Bone Cells from Fat Cells * A team of researchers from Duke University Medical Center led by Iranian scientist Dr. Farshid Guilak, professor of biomedical engineering, has "reprogrammed" adult fat cells taken from a small deposit of fat behind the kneecap into functioning cartilage, bone or fat cells that could potentially be grown into replacement tissues. The cells were placed in a gelatinous material (alginate) that caused them take a rounded shape. Then they were treated with a mixture of chemicals, including transforming growth factor beta, dexamethasone, and vitamin C, that cause the cells to increase their production of cartilage-specific molecules. Dr. Guilak tells RFE/RL that his technique may provide a revolutionary therapy for diseases such as arthritis and back pain as well as loss of bone and cartilage resulting from injuries. (Fatemeh Aman, Washington) Youth, Society and Education * Paris-based sociologist Said Peyvandi continues his on-going talk about the need for text-book reform in Iran and comments on the spread of social pathologies in Iran. (Nazi Azima) Classical Love Stories: Yusef va Zoleikha * Sadredin Elahi continues his recitation of the Yusef va Zoleikha story based on poetry by Abdolrahman Jami. سياوش اردلان (راديوآزادي): وزارت خارجه امريكا بار ديگر جمهوري اسلامي ايران را متهم به حمايت از تروريسم كرد و گفت اين امر، همراه با تلاش ايران براي توليد سلاحهاي كشتار جمعي، مشكل اصلي واشنگتن با تهران است. گرچه وزارت خارجه امريكا اتهامات خود عليه ايران را تكرار كرد، با اين وجود براي گفتگو با ايران درباره اين اتهامات اعلام امادگي كرد. مقامات ايران تاكيد ميكنند تا هنگامي كه كه امريكا، به گفته انها، با زبان زور و تهديد سخن مي گويد، مذاكره اي در كار نخواهد بود. با اين حال سخنگوي وزارت خارجه امريكا اظهار داشت: واشنگتن روند تدريجي گشايش فضا و برقراري دمكراسي در جامعه ايران را از نزديك دنبال ميكند. طي سالهاي اخير كه ايران و امريكا به رد و بدل كردن اتهامات خود عليه يكديگر مي پردازند، مقامات جمهوري اسلامي همواره گفته اند بدون تحقق يك سري پيششرط ها با آمريكا مذاكره نخواهند كرد. ولي موضع امريكا مبتني بر حل مشكلات با ايران در پاي ميز مذاكره است. اما در وراي تكرار مواضع هميشگي، آمريكا به فشارهاي خود براي در مضيقه قرار دادن جمهوري اسلامي ايران ادامه مي دهد. يك موسسه آمريكايي رده بندي اعتبارات، كه ميزان ريسك سرمايه گذاري در شركت ها و كشورهاي جهان را مي سنجد، به علت فشارهاي دولت امريكا روز گذشته اعلام كرد: ايران را از فهرست رده بندي هاي خود خارج مي سازد. اين موسسه كه "موديز" نام دارد گفته است اقدام "بيسابقه" خود را در واكنش به نگراني هاي آمريكا انجام داد -- نگراني هايي كه در قالب نامه هشدار گونه وزارت خزانه داري امريكا به موسسه موديز ابراز شد. موسسه موديز سال گذشته وضعيت ايران را در رده بندي خود مثبت ارزيابي كرده بود. اما ايران در جبهه هاي ديگر نيز خود را رويارو با نمونه هاي ديگر از فشارهاي آمريكا يافت. جرج بوش، رييس جمهوري آمريكا، با ارسال نامه اي به رييس جمهوري آذربايجان، بر حمايت خود از احداث خط لوله باكو-جيحان تاكيد كرد. اين خط لوله در صورت احداث، نفت درياي خزر را از راه اذربايجان و گرجستان به بندر جيحان در تركيه ميرساند. جرج بوش در نامه اش به حيدر علي اف نوشته است: من بسيار خرسندم كه خط لوله باكو-جيحان به سوي ساخته شدن پيش مي رود. برآورد مي شود خط لوله باكو-جيحان، با ظرفيت حمل يك ميليون بشكه نفت در روز، وابستگي غرب را به توليد كنندگان نفت در اطراف خليج فارس، بويژه ايران، كاهش دهد. جرج بوش اعلام كرد: آمريكا براي همكاري با جمهوري آذربايجان براي "افزايش امنيت تامين سوخت جهاني" امادگي دارد. همزمان با اين اعلام آمادگي آمريكا، يك شركت دولتي اين كشور نيز گفت: هر بانك امريكايي را كه در خط لوله باكو-جيحان سرمايه گزاري كند، تا سيصد ميليون دلار بيمه خواهد كرد. ايران با احداث خط لوله باكو-جيحان كه از لحاظ اقتصادي هم پر هزينه تر است مخالفت ميكند. مقامات جمهوري اسلامي ايران مايل هستند انتقال نفت خزر از خاك ايران صورت بگيرد. اما مخالفت هاي امريكا تنها محدود به انتقال نفت خزر از خاك ايران نشده است. بنا به قوانين امريكا، شركتهاي خارجيي كه در پروژه هاي نفتي داخل ايران بالاي بيست ميليون دلار سرمايه گزاري كنند، مشمول تحريم هاي واشنگتن مي شوند. اين تحريم ها هنوز عملا عليه هيچ شركت خارجي اعمال نشده است. اما تام لنتوس، يكي از نمايندگان كنگره آمريكا روز سه شنبه خواستار آن شد دولت آمريكا اين تحريم ها را عليه يك شركت كانادايي كه اخيرا با ايران قرار داد نفتي امضا كرد، به مرحله اجرا بگذارد. هنوز روشن نيست اين درخواست آقاي لنتوس چه زماني در صحن كنگره به راي كذاشته شود. شركت كاناداي "شير" دو هفته پيش براي بهره برداري از حوزه نفتي مسجد سليمان قراردادي هشتاد ميليون دلاري با ايران امضا كرد. در حالي كه گروه هاي سياسي جمهوري اسلامي مشغول بحث درباره سود و زيان مذاكره با امريكا، يا نفس اين بحث هستند، فشارهاي واشنگتن، حلقه محاصره اقتصادي ايران را تنگ تر مي كند.

سخنگوي وزارت امورخارجه آمريكا اعلام كرد كه آمريكا آماده است اتهام هاي خود مبني بر حمايت جمهوري اسلامي از تروريسم و توليد سلاح هاي كشتار انبوه توسط حكومت ايران را با مقامات اين حكومت به بحث بگذارد. آمريكا در عين حال، بر حمايت هاي خود از احداث خط لوله نفت باكو - جيحان كه مورد مخالفت حكومت ايران است، افزود و شركت خدمات سرمايه گذاري موديز Moody's Investor Service طبقه بندي اعتبار ايران را كه دولت آمريكا آن را با تحريم اقتصادي ايران مغاير دانسته بود، لغو كرد و يك نماينده كنگره آمريكا تحريم اقتصادي شركت شيرانرژي Sheer Energy كانادا را كه براي توسعه ميدان نفت مسجدسليمان با ايران قرارداد بسته است، خواستار شد. در حاليكه جناح هاي جمهوري اسلامي مشغول بحث در باره فوايد مذاكره با آمريكا هستند، فشار هاي آمريكا بر جمهوري اسلامي، ايران را در يك حلقه محاصره اقتصادي قرار مي دهد.

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