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یکشنبه ۴ مهر ۱۴۰۰ تهران ۱۳:۲۷

اهميت و پيامدهاي لغو انحصار دولتي قند و شكر

فريدون زرنگار، مصاحبه با حبيب چيني (تهران)

Summary of Today's BroadcastRFE/RL Persian ServiceThursday, July 04, 2002 - State monopoly of sugar ends - Euro's rise and Iran's dollar reserves - Army ends selling military service exemptions - Interior minister defends special police forces - Tens of thousands celebrate Persian hero State Monopoly of Sugar Ends * Enacting one of the provisions of the Third Five-Year Development Plan, the government ended its sugar monopoly, the oldest state monopoly of a commodity in Iran. Tehran-based economist Habib Chini says the sugar monopoly is a relic of a law that 70 years ago monopolized all foreign trade and paid for building Iran's railroad and national army through indirect tax on sugar, tobacco and opium. Gradually, custom tariffs replaced the state monopolies except for sugar, tobacco and a few other products. He tells RFE/RL that Tehran's goal to join World Trade Organization and the inefficiency of the government agencies compel the government to turn over its businesses to the private sector, but these efforts face bureaucratic resistance. (Fereydoun Zarnegar) Euro's Rise against the Dollar and Iran's Economy * The euro's recent rise against dollar is more a reflection of uncertainty about the direction of the US economy than a result of the strength of the new European currency. However, as RFE/RL's Paris-based economic commentator Fereydoun Khavand says, the dollar's fall reduces Iran's buying power, since most of Iran's oil income is in dollars while most of its purchases are paid for in euros. When the euro first appeared last year, some economists in Iran urged the government to convert some of Iran's dollar reserves into euros. But since the dollar held firm against the euro, their idea was ignored. Iran has $14 billion in foreign currency reserves. Army Ends Selling Exemptions from National Military Service * Citing a need for more fighting forces, the army stopped permitting young men at draft age to buy their way out of the mandatory two-year military service. Tehran journalist Naser Karami says the law to sell exemptions to military service was passed seven years ago as a means to raise money, but the army saw the selling of exemption to military service as an insult to servicemen. A provision in the law allowed the army to stop the practice at the time of need. He tells RFE/RL that the army's move would prove costly since each year hundreds of thousands young men reach draft age. (Fereydoun Zarnegar) Anniversary of the Attack on IranAir Jet over the Persian Gulf * In an interview with RFE/RL on the anniversary of the shooting down of the an Iran Air passenger jet over the Persian Gulf by the USS Vincennes, former Tehran Embassy Charge d'Affairs Bruce Laingen says the accident was a tragic mistake and the US has apologized to and the families of the victims. (Homayoun Majd, Washington) Interior Minister Defends Special Police Unit's Street Action * Interior minister Abdolvahed Musavi Lari defended a special police unit's presence in Tehran streets and said they are defending the citizens against hooligans. Many young men and women reported bloody beatings by the special unit forces for having long hair or listening to loud music in their cars. The head of the Majles judiciary committee said the special forces' action is an infringement of privacy. The minister of culture Ahmad Masjed-Jamei also criticized the action. RFE/RL's Mehdi Khalaji says two decades of violent suppression of western culture has not changed the taste and cultural preferences of Iranian youths. Despite Official Obstacles Tens of Thousands Celebrate Babak Khoram Din * Ignoring obstacles created by the local and regional governments, tens of thousands of people gathered at the Babak castle in the town of Kelidar in Eastern Azerbaijan for the two-day celebration of Babak Khoram Din, one of the first leaders of Persian resistance to Arab rule. This year's celebration was quieter compared to previous years. Tabriz-based journalist Ensaf-Ali Hedayat says tourist agencies and bus companies had orders not to take passengers to the event, musicians and cultural figures in Tabriz and other cities were ordered by the police not to leave their towns and policemen searched cars heading to the event looking for musical instruments. Abdollah Babak was a farmer from Ardabil who established a Persian alternative to Islam and with his followers killed many of the Abbasid Caliphate's forces more than 1200 years ago. WORLD * Americans celebrate Independence Day amid heavy security. (Homayoun Majd, Washington) * US arrests a stepson of Saddam Hussein in Miami as he was about to register for a flight training program. (Homayoun Majd, Washington) * Iraq begins another round of talks with the UN. (Shahram Mirian, Cologne) * Arafat fired security chiefs under US pressure, says Khaled Salah, an editor of the Egyptian weekly al-Ahram-ol-Arabi in an interview with RFE/RL. Jerusalem Post's Ari Hoffman says Israel wants an end to terrorism, with or without Arafat. (Jamshid Chalangi) * Eco-activist organization the Greenpeace protests against a British ship carrying plutonium from Japan to Britain. (Fariba Mavedat, London) * In a press conference in Cairo, five leaders of the Jamiat, the Islamic organization involved in President Anwar Sadat's assassination, called it a mistake. (Jamshid Chalangi) * Havel opens Forum 2000 conference in Prague. (Nazi Azima) * Western Europe turns to the right while former communists and other leftist parties are gaining popularity in Eastern Europe. (Fariba Mavedat, London) * Germany arrests eight Arabs suspected of plotting to form a new terrorist organization. (Shahram Mirian, Cologne) * Italy's interior minister resigns over a kidnapping victim's letter. (Ahmad Ra'fat, Rome) * A Florida court fines a niece of the King Fahd of Saudi Arabia $1000 for mistreating her maid. (Jamshid Chalangi) * More than 250 million children around the world have no access to education, according to a report in the New York Times. (Fariba Mavedat, London) ARTS AND IDEAS Iranian Films at Czech Republic's Karlovy Vary Festival * Five Iranian films are scheduled to be shown at Czech Republic's Karlovy Vary international film festival which began today. (Golnaz Esfandiari, Karlovy Vary) Pop Singer Vigen and Fifty Years on the Stage * Vigen, the popular Iranian pop singer tells RFE/RL of his fifty years on the stage. (Fahimeh Barati, Los Angeles) Weekly Soccer News and Commentary Program * Fresh from his assignment at soccer World Cup games in Seoul, South Korea, RFE/RL's soccer commentator Mehrdad Masudi reviews last week's games and answers listeners' questions. (Mehrdad Masudi, London) The World of Music * RFE/RL's music critic Mahmud Khoshnam discusses the work of Russian composer Tchaikovsky and Persian singer Khatereh Parvaneh. Classic Love Stories: Vis va Ramin * Sadredin Elahi continues his recitation of the story of Vis va Ramin based on Fakhredin Asad Gorani. Cartoonist Kambiz Derambakhsh * Germany-based veteran cartoonist Kambiz Derambakh tells RFE/RL about his work. (Bahman Bastani)

در پي تصويب آئين نامه اجرائي لغو انحصار دولتي قندو شكر، يكي از كهن ترين انحصارات دولتي در ايران پايان گرفت. دكتر حبيب چيني، كارشناس اقتصاد در تهران در مصاحبه را راديوآزادي مي گويد در سال 1313 قانوني به نام قانون انحصار تجارت خارجي ايران گذشت و كليه تجارت خارجي كشور در انحصار دولت قرار گرفت و در اثر همان قانون از روي عوارضي كه از قندو شكر گرفته شد، راه آهن دولتي به وجود آمد يا از انحصار ترياك ارتش واحد ايران را به وجود آورد ولي به تدريج كه اين قانون اهميت خود را از دست داد حقوق و عوارض گمركي و سود بازرگاني جاي قانون قبلي را گرفت و دولت اين حق را با گرفتن عوارض به مردم واگذار كرد اما در زمينه هايي مثل دخانيات و قند و شكر و چند كالاي ديگر انحصار در دست دولت ماند. وي مي افزايد اقتصاد دولتي در سال هاي اخير ناكفائي خود را نشان داده است و تمايل ايران به پيوستن به سازمان تجارت جهاني، لزوم لغو انحصارهاي دولتي را پديد آورده است. چيني مي گويد در آغاز كار لغو انحصار ممكن است باعث افزايش قيمت بشود. وي مي افزايد قيمت ها را بايد با افزايش عرضه پائين آورد و با چوب و فلك نمي توان قيمت ها را پائين نگه داشت. چيني مي گويد براي انجام اين تصميم بايد ابتدا از طريق فرهنگ سازي زمينه لازم ساخته شود و انتقال امور از موسسات دولتي به بخش خصوصي به سختي انجام پذير است.

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