لینک‌های قابلیت دسترسی

دوشنبه ۳ آبان ۱۳۹۵ تهران ۰۱:۵۸ - ۲۴ اکتبر ۲۰۱۶

جايگاه ايران در ترانزيت بين المللي و منطقه اي: كمبود سرمايه گذاري در صنعت حمل و نقل

فريدون خاوند (گزارش اقتصادي روز)

Summary of Today's BroadcastRFE/RL Persian ServiceTuesday, June 11, 2002 - Tehran conference on the future of transportation industry - Belgian foreign minister in Tehran - Tehran's Caspian Sea envoy in Azerbaijan - Ansar-e Hezbollah disrupts reformists' Kermanshah meeting - Domestic tea industry and smugglers - Oxford conference on 1953 US-backed coup Transportation Industry Suffers From Low Investment * In a conference in Tehran today, transportation experts and officials discussed the possibilities and challenges of their industry. Sitting at the crossroads between east and west, Iran could link Central Asia to Europe, but the country's transportation infrastructure, like other industries, suffers from lack of investment. Iran's fleet of trucks is twice as old as those of other countries in the region and the average age of Iran's airplanes is 21 years old, more than most Third World countries. The pace of new highway development has increased by only 1.6 percent during the past decade, according to the monthly "Eqtesad-e Iran" (Iran's Economy). Tehran Conference Views Transportation Prospects and Challenges * Representatives from 30 nations and 20 international organizations participated in the conference "Iran Transit: Opportunities and Challenges," opened today in Tehran by President Khatami. Homayoun Zarqani, editor of the monthly "Transporation" (Haml-o-Naql) says Iran is linking its railroad to Central Asia and rapidly modernizing its ports to make them container-ready. He tells RFE/RL that succeeding in transportation cannot be accomplished by increasing capacity alone. For a more profitable utilization of existing capacity, the country needs to improve the management and marketing of its transportation services and facilities. (Ardavan Niknam) Belgium's Foreign Minister Visits Tehran * George Michel, Belgium's foreign minister said today in Tehran that the prospect of the EU foreign ministers' authorizing negotiations over the economic cooperation agreement with Iran appears promising. (Jean Khakzad, Paris) Tehran's Caspian Envoy Meets Azerbaijan Officials * Mehdi Safari, Tehran's special representative in Caspian Sea affairs arrived in Baku today to hold talks with president Aliyev's government about Caspian's legal regime. A day before his arrival, Azerbaijan security forces arrested the leader of Azerbaijan's Islamic party over last week's disturbances following a ceremony in Nardaran village near Baku honoring Ayatollah Khomeini on the 13th anniversary of his death. The arrests may be an outcome of a secret arrangement between Baku and Tehran. (Alireza Taheri, Prague; Mani Kasravi, Moscow) Pro-Conservative Gang Breaks Up Reformists Meeting in Kermanshah * The group known as Ansar-e Hezbollah or Razmandegan-e Eslam (Islam's warriors) disrupted a meeting organized by reformists in Kermanshah's Motazedi mosque on "pathology of reforms." Eyewitness Abdollah Nazari, a Kermanshah-based journalist, says before Hamedan MP Hossin Loqmanian and reformist journalist and newspaper publisher Latif Safari could begin their scheduled speeches, the group shouted slogans in support of the Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khamenei, insulted and attacked the participants and broke up the meeting by throwing chairs and smashing windows. Nazari tells RFE/RL that the meeting had a valid permit from the provincial security council and was watched by a large number of policemen who did nothing to intervene. The crowd was dispersed by anti-riot forces, which closed down the main streets. (Jamshid Zand) Government Considers Change in Election Law * The Khatami government is working on a bill that would divide the electorate into provinces, instead of election districts. Proponents say it would raise the quality of candidates who would have to appeal to a whole province, as opposed to a small area. Their opponents see it as ethnically divisive, putting the country in danger of breakup. Some conservatives oppose any election reform that might end the Guardians Council's election oversight. (Mehdi Khalaji) Tea Smugglers Drive Growers and Factories Out of Business * The domestic distribution of tea is controlled by smugglers who supply Iran with 70,000 tons of tea per year, or 70 percent of the country's consumption, according to Mohammad Hasan Allahyari, a high level official of Iran Tea Organization (Sazeman-e Chai-ye Iran). Growers in Gilan province complain that tea processing factories have been refusing to buy their tea for the past 10 days, threatening their crop with ruin. Ramsar-based tea-industry observer Ahmad Daneshpazir says the current problems are the outcome of a long period of government monopolization of tea, during which growers and factories were guaranteed payment for whatever they produced and thus had no motive to improve the quality of their product. He tells RFE/RL that now, with the government trying to implement market-oriented reforms in the tea industry, the growers and factories have a harder time meeting market standards and lose grounds to competition from illegal imports. Growers lack equipment and skill to pick high quality buds separately and factories continue to rely on 50-year old machinery. The unsold domestic product is turned into fertilizer. (Fereydoun Zarnegar) Judiciary Closes Tabriz Pro-Reform Weekly * Ali Hamed Iman, publisher of the regional weekly Shams-e Tabriz says the court order three days ago banning the magazine indefinitely did not relate to last month's judgment, which he has appealed. He tells RFE/RL that the judiciary has been under pressure to close his publication. (Jamshid Zand) Conference on 1953 Coup * In a conference held at St. Anthony's College, Oxford, scholars discussed the events leading to the Shah's US-backed dismissal of the populist prime minister Mohammad Mosaddeq in 1953. Oxford professor Homayoun Katouzian, who has published several books on the subject, tells RFE/RL that the highlight of the conference was the presence of two retired intelligence officers from the US and Britain who talked about their involvement in the operation for the first time. (Shahran Tabari, London) WORLD * Afghanistan's emergency "loya jirga" convenes. (Ahmad Takel, (Kabul) * Former Afghan king Mohammad Zaher nominates interim government leader Hamed Karzai for heading the transitional government. (Siavash Ardalan) * Nelson Mandela visits the Libyan officer convicted to life in prison for his involvement in the Pan Am jetliner's 1988 explosion over Lockerbie. (Shahran Tabari, London) * Kuwait says Khaled Sheikh Muhammad, an alleged mastermind of the September 11 attack on the WTC buildings in New York, is a close relative of Ramzi Yusef, who is in jail for involvement in the 1996 attack on the same buildings. (Fariba Mavedat) * Fifty civil Israeli and Palestinian personalities meet behind closed doors in Rome. (Ahmad Ra'fat, Rome) * In a reversal, Russia announces its support for the Baku-Ceyhan oil pipeline, which would link Caspian Sea to the Black Sea. (Fariba Mavedat) * Britain calls the FAO summit meeting a waste of time. At the current pace, it would take 60 years for FAO to reduce world hunger by half, says Iran's minister of agriculture in his speech at the conference. (Ahmad Ra'fat, Rome) * Beatles co-founder Sir Paul marries for the third time. (Shahran Tabari, London) ARTS AND IDEAS RFE/RL's Daily Coverage of Soccer World Cup * Roundup of today's World Cup games by RFE/RL's soccer commentator. (Mehrdad Masudi, Seoul) Love Stories from the Shahnameh: Siavash and Sudabeh * Sadredin Elahi continues his recitation of the story of Siavash and Sudabeh based on Ferdowsi's epic Shahnameh. Weekly Book Review * RFE/RL's Tehran-based book reviewer Kamran Fani reviews four books published recently in Iran. These include: a Persian translation by Abbas Baqeri of Raymond Polin's book on freedom of expression Verite et Liberte; a Persian translation by Mehdi Semsar of Ariana Haffington's book on Picasso; Yusef Majidzadeh's two volumes on the history of the Mesopotamian civilization; and a short story collection by Ali Jodai, this year's winner of the Houshang Golshiri award for best short fiction. Poetry Reading * Prominent contemporary poet Simin Behbahani reads her "red" (Sorkh) poem; RFE/RL's Iraj Gorgin reads "avaz-e chagoor" by Mehdi Akhavan Sales. Classic Persian Love Stories: Leyli va Majnoun * Sardredin Elahi begins recitation of the story of Leyli and Majnoun based on Nezami Ganjavi. From Kabul to Mazar-i-Sharif * Filmmaker and RFE/RL reporter Ali Attar surveys the new Afghanistan in a journey from Kabul to Mazar-i-Sharif.دكتر فريدون خاوند (راديوآزادي): هدف رسمي از برگزاري همايش امروز تهران -«ايران-ترانزيت، فرصت ها و چالش هاي فراروي،» فراهم آوردن زمينه هاي مناسب براي ايجاد همگرايي ملي، منطقه‌اي و بين‌المللي به منظور بهبود موقعيت هاي عبوري ايران و بهره ‌برداري از آنها است. در فضاي جهاني شدن اقتصاد، كه يكي از ويژگي هاي اصلي آن جا به جايي روز افزون كالا ها و خدمات و سرمايه‌ها و انسان ها است، ايران، به عنوان يكي از مهم ترين گذرگاه هاي جهان، از يك برگ برندة بزرگ برخوردار است. اين كشور يك ميليون و ششصد و چهل و هشت هزار كيلومتري، با برخورداري از پانزده مرز بين‌المللي خاكي و آبي، چهارراهي است ميان اروپا، خاورميانه، آسياي مركزي و قفقاز. بخش بزرگي از بازرگاني ميان آسيا و اروپا مي تواند از خاك ايران بگذرد و درآمدي كلان را از آن اين كشور سازد. در اين شرايط اغراق آميز نخواهد بود اگر گفته شود كه گسترش زير بنا ها و امكانات حمل و نقل براي امروز و فرداي ايران همانقدر اهميت دارد كه سرمايه‌گذاري در راه بهره‌برداري از منابع نفت و گاز. توافق سه جانبة اخير ميان هند، ايران و روسيه براي ايجاد كريدور يا «راهگذر شمال-جنوب»، در راستاي بهره‌گيري از همين فرصت ها‌است. ايران در حال حاضر در خليج فارس و درياي مازندران ده بندر دارد با ظرفيت چهل و دو ميليون تن در سال. شبكة راه آهن كشور شش هزار و چهارصد كيلومتر راه اصلي و دو هزار و هفتصد كيلومتر راه فرعي را در بر ميگيرد. طول جاده هاي ايران نيز به 176 هزار كيلومتر ميرسد، از جمله هشتصد كيلومتر بزرگراه. در عرصة حمل و نقل هوايي نيز ايران پنجاه و هشت فرودگاه غير نظامي دارد با ظرفيت اسمي حمل هشتاد مليون مسافر در سال. از بعد از انقلاب اسلامي تا كنون، به رغم بحران هاي سياسي و اقتصادي، دستگاه هاي اجرايي ايران همواره گسترش شبكه هاي حمل و نقل را يكي از مهم ترين اولويت هاي خود به شمار آورده‌اند. محمد خاتمي رييس جمهوري اسلامي نيز در سخنراني امروز خود در همايش تهران بر استفاده از امكانات ايران به عنوان گذرگاه منطقه‌اي و جهاني تأكيد كرد. با اينهمه در مقايسه با نياز هاي دروني، منطقه‌اي و بين‌المللي ايران در دنياي آغاز قرن بيست و يكم، صنعت حمل و نقل كشور با تنگنا هاي بزرگ دست به گريبان است. ماهنامة «اقتصاد ايران» چاپ تهران در عنوان اصلي آخرين شمارة خود ناوگان حمل و نقل ايران را «سالخورده و فرسوده» توصيف مي كند و بر تنگنا هاي كنوني آن انگشت مي گذارد : ميانگين سني ناوگان باربري جاده‌اي در ايران بيست سال است، حال آنكه در كشور هاي ديگر از پنج تا ده سال بيشتر نيست. ناوگان هوايي كشور هم، با متوسط سني 21 سال، از بيشتر ناوگان هاي جهان سوم سالخورده تر است. روند ساخت راه ها در ايران نيز، به نوشتة ماهنامة «اقتصاد ايران»، لاكپشت وار است، تا جايي كه راه هاي حوزة استحفاظي وزارت راه در ده سال گذشته تنها 1.6 در صد در سال افزايش يافته است. كوتاه سخن آنكه صنعت حمل و نقل ايران نيز، همانند ساير صنايع اين كشور، با كمبود شديد سرمايه‌گذاري روبرو است.

به مناسبت برگزاري كنفرانس در باره امكانات و چالش هاي حمل و نقل بين المللي در تهران، راديوآزادي در گزارشي به بررسي مشكلات صنعت حمل و نقل و جايگاه ايران در حمل و نقل بين المللي مي پردازد. ايران با برخورداري از 15 مرز بين‌المللي خاكي و آبي، چهارراهي است ميان اروپا، خاورميانه، آسياي مركزي و قفقاز. ولي صنعت حمل و نقل ايران، مانند صنايع ديگر، با كمبود شديد سرمايه‌گذاري روبرو است. ميانگين سني ناوگان باربري جاده‌اي در ايران دو برابر كشورهاي ديگر است، ناوگان هوايي كشور هم، با متوسط سني 21 سال، از بيشتر ناوگان هاي جهان سوم سالخورده تر است. روند ساخت راه ها در ايران نيز، به نوشتة ماهنامة «اقتصاد ايران»، لاكپشت وار است، تا جايي كه راه هاي حوزة استحفاظي وزارت راه در ده سال گذشته تنها 1.6 در صد در سال افزايش يافته است.

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