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جمعه ۴ خرداد ۱۳۹۷ تهران ۰۰:۴۸

بررسي اصول اقتصادي قانون اساسي جمهوري اسلامي: ضرورت اصلاح قانون و رفع بن بست ها

فريدون خاوند (گزارش اقتصادي روز)

Summary of Today's BroadcastRFE/RL Persian ServiceMonday, May 20, 2002 - State economic controls and the constitution - Foreign minister in India - Defense minister in Kuwait - Iran-Azerbaijan Caspian dispute - Intelligence minister denies US-Iran talks - Tehran protests Tony Blair's "terrorist" accusation - Foe of reformist press gets press supervision seat - A police chief proposes torturing all prisoners with sleep deprivation - Islamic Republic at dead end: views from inside Iran and abroad Tehran Conference on Economic Principles of the Constitution * A two-day conference began today in Tehran to "contemplate" the impact of the Islamic Republic constitution on the economic development of the country. Reflecting leftist ideology of the late 1970's, the constitution provides a basis for a statist economic system. Reducing state controls requires circumventing constitutional obstacles through complicated interpretations. Hossein Namazi, who as finance minister during Khatami's first term blocked attempts at privatization, organized today's conference. (Fererydoun Khavand) Foreign Minister Visits India, Discusses Gas Pipeline * In New Delhi for the 12th session of the Iran-India cooperation commission, foreign minister Kamal Kharazi discussed an air link between New Delhi and Kabul via Iran. An Iran-India gas pipeline through Pakistan is being put off, due to India-Pakistan tensions. (Fariba Mavedat) Defense Minister Seeks to Calm Arabs' Worries about Iran's Missiles * Arabs need not worry about Iran's missile power, defense minister Ali Shamkhani told Kuwait's army brass during the first visit of an Iranian defense minister to Kuwait since the 1979 revolution. (Farideh Rahbar, Cairo) Iran-Azerbaijan Dispute over Caspian Remains Unresolved * Azerbaijani President Heydar Aliyev's visit to Tehran failed to resolve differences between the two countries on the Caspian's legal regime. Aliyev took issue with an Iranian reporter's use of the Iranian name "Mazandaran Sea," and Khatami's promise that "from now on it will be called Caspian Sea" did not calm Aliyev who asked "why from now on?" Aliyev's Tehran visit produced 10 cooperation pacts on a wide range of economic, cultural and transportation projects. In addition to the official meetings with the Ayatollah Khamenei and Khatami, Aliyev had a two-hour closed-door meeting with Khatami. (Alireza Taheri) Intelligence Minister Denies US-Iran Talks * Intelligence and security minister Ali Yunesi said yesterday that his ministry's investigation found no basis for claims in the Majles about a secret US-Iran meeting. Yunesi's announcement suggests that even if such a meeting did take place, it was unsuccessful. (Siavash Ardalan) Tehran Protests Tony Blair's "Terrorist" Accusation * Five days after Tony Blair called the Islamic Republic a threat to international security, Tehran lodged an official protest by summoning the British charge d'affairs Neil Crompton to the foreign ministry on Sunday. The foreign ministry official told Crompton that Tehran does not consider an anti-occupation struggle terrorism, and called for a global war against terrorism headed by the UN. The new Tehran-London row deepened the tensions between the two countries at a time when Tehran more than ever needs better relations with Europe, particularly the UK. (Alireza Taheri) Foe of Reformist Press Gets Press Supervision Seat * Judge Gholam-Hossein Mohseni-Ezhei, head of the Special Courts for the Clergy, replaces Abdolreza Yazdanpaneh, judiciary's director of public relations, as the judicidary's representative on the powerful seven-man council that supervises the press. As judge and prosecutor, Mohseni-Ezhei closed many reformist newspapers in the past two years, and oversees the press court as head of the government employees' courts. The press supervision council headed by the minister of culture and Islamic guidance issues press licenses and investigates complaints about the press. Its members include representatives from universities, Qom seminaries, newspaper publishers, and the high council on cultural revolution. Mashhad-based journalist Mohammad-Sadeq Javadi-Hesar tells RFE/RL that that the addition of Mohseni-Ezhei to the press supervision council would not make the already authoritarian press law any tougher on the press. However Yazdanpanah, his predecessor in this position, was personally more lenient. Recently, the press supervision council has been tightfisted in issuing licenses for new reformist newspapers and has not interfered with the judiciary's rough handling of the press, adds Javadi-Hessar. (Mehdi Khalaji) Public Executions' Impact on Tehran's International Image * A public execution in southern Tehran attracted 500 onlookers early this morning, the Associated Press reports, adding that public executions, stoning and other forms of Islamic justice, harms Tehran's image in world opinion. (Fariba Mavedat) Amnesty International Campaigns to Prevent Public Stoning of Two Women * In a statement issued yesterday, the German branch of Amnesty International asked the Islamic Republic Judiciary to repeal stoning sentences against two Iranian women who have already spend 8 and 12 years in jail. (Golnaz Esfandiari) A Police Chief Suggests Torturing All Prisoners by Sleep Deprivation * Iran's prisons are like hotels, says Ali Amiri, acting commander of the police. To make prison terms more punishing, prisoners should not be allowed to sleep more than four hours per day, he added. Morteza Bakhtiari, head of Judiciary's prison system (Sazeman-e Zendan-ha) says overcrowding leaves only 10 cubic meters of space per prisoner. Lawyer activist Mohammad-Ali Jedari-Forughi, who has been in jail on political charges, tells RFE/RL that being in prison is itself a punishment, adding that long-term sleep deprivation could be fatal to some prisoners. He says comparing Iran's prisons to hotel is a bitter humor, since some cellblocks are so crowded that prisoners cannot stretch their legs when they sleep. (Siavash Ardalan) Islamic Republic at Dead End: Country at Brink of Explosion * AP reports on social conditions in Iran two weeks after President Khatami warned that the country was at the brink of unrest. (Alireza Taheri) Islamic Republic at Dead End: View from Iran's Newspapers * As the 6th anniversary of Khatami's election to presidency of the Islamic Republic nears, reformist journalist Hamid-Reza Jalaipur writes in response to visitors to an Internet site that Khatami's reform movement is already finished. (Ardavan Niknam) WORLD * Jihad Jibril, son of Ahmad Jibril, leader of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine - General Command was killed by a car bomb in Lebanon. (Farideh Rahbar, Cairo) * A suicide attack in northern Israel kills three and wounds 50, increasing chances of an Israeli incursion into Gaza. (Jamshid Chalangi, Cairo) * Six hundred armed militants loyal to conservative warlord Golbedin Hekmatyar face government troops. (Golnaz Esfandiari) * East Timor introduces a new government on the first day of independence from Indonesia. (Siavash Ardalan) * The US Vice President warns about possible terrorist attacks. (Homayoun Majd, Washington) * President Bush emphasizes the need for the economic sanctions on Cuba to continue. (Homayoun Majd, Washington) * President Bush prepares for his upcoming trip to Germany and Russia. (Fereydoun Zarnegar) * Interim leader Hamid Karzai opens Afghanistan's second conference on civil society. (Golnaz Esfandiari) * Exhibition in Hanover, Germany, explores religious beliefs of Europeans in 1000 B.C. (Shahram Mirian, Hanover) * Two days before President Bush's visit, Russian foreign ministry said Russia will continue its cooperation with North Korea and does not support using the term Axis of Evil for that country. (Mani Kasravi, Moscow) * Representatives from European embassies were permitted to observe the second round of the trial of 71-year-old leader of Syria's communist party. (Jamshid Chalangi, Cairo) * A UNICEF poll of views of 50 million children about poverty, AIDS and other issues was published in Russia today. (Mani Kasravi, Moscow) * Pop John Paul II will sleep in a hotel room during his upcoming Baku visit. Azerbaijan has only 150 Catholics. (Ardavan Niknam) ARTS AND CULTURE Songs and Song Makers: Habibollah Badiyi * RFE/RL's music critic Mahmud Khoshnam reviews the career of Habibollah Badiyi, composer of some of the most popular songs in the history of Iran's national music. One Book, One Author * Bahman Bastani discusses a collection of four plays with the writer Nasser Hosseini. Poetry in Persian Music: Abolhasan Varzi * RFE/RL's music critic Mahmud Khoshnam reviews the career of Abolhasan Varzi, lyricist of some of the most popular songs in the history of Iran's national music.ضرورت اصلاح يا عدم اصلاح قانون اساسي، يكي از حساس ترين بحث هاي مطرح در محافل سياسي تهران است. كشمكش ميان نهاد هاي كليدي نظام جمهوري اسلامي و روشن نبودن اختيارات آنها، همراه با بن بست قانونگذاري در موارد گوناگون و پيآمد هاي آن براي سياست داخلي و خارجي، يكبار ديگر سرنوشت مهم ترين متن حقوقي كشور را به ميان كشيده است. ايران كه در صد سال گذشته دو قانون اساسي را با اصلاحات پي در پي تجربه كرده ، همچنان چشم به راه قانون اساسي مطلوب خويش است. سياست اقتصادي مندرج در قانون اساسي جمهوري اسلامي در چند سال اخير بيش از ساير مولفه هاي اين قانون مورد بحث قرار گرفته است. همايش «تأملي نو بر اصول اقتصادي قانون اساسي»، كه بامداد امروز (دوشنبه) در تهران گشايش يافت، ادامة همين بحث است كه جوهر آن، در واقع، بررسي تأثير قانون اساسي است بر فر‌آيند توسعة ايران. قانون اساسي جمهوري اسلامي يكي از معدود قوانين اساسي جهان است كه در امر سياستگذاري اقتصادي به جزييات پرداخته و، عملا، در عرصه هاي گوناگون، به مانعي در راه اصلاحات بنيادي بدل شده است. اصل چهل و چهار، شمار زيادي از بخش هاي كليدي اقتصاد ايران را به مالكيت انحصاري دولتي سپرده و اصل هشتاد و يك راه را بر سرمايه گذاري خارجي بسته است. به بيان ديگر، نويسندگان قانون اساسي جمهوري اسلامي، با الهام گرفتن از ايدئولوژي چپ سال هاي پاياني دهة 1970 ميلادي، دانسته يا ندانسته در راه تثبيت اقتصاد سوسياليستي در ايران قانونگذاري كرده اند. از آن زمان تا كنون، هر گونه ابتكاري براي كاستن از حضور دولت در اقتصاد كشور، الزاما به يك سلسله عمليات پيچيده نياز داشته است در راه دور زدن موانع قانون اساسي از راه تفسير هاي گوناگون. همايش امروز -«تأملي نو بر اصول اقتصادي قانون اساسي»- به ابتكار حسين نمازي برگزار شده كه در چهار سال نخست رياست جمهوري محمد خاتمي، در مقام وزارت امور اقتصادي و دارايي، با بسياري از جهتگيري ها در راستاي آزاد سازي اقتصادي مخالفت ورزيد و سرانجام، با توجه آشتي پذير نبودن مواضعش با شماري از سكانداران سياست اقتصادي ايران، جاي خود را به طهماسب مظاهري سپرد. حسين نمازي، در نقش يكي از سخنگويان اقتصاد دولتي، خصوصي سازي را در بسياري از واحد هاي توليدي و خدماتي كشور مغاير با اصول قانون اساسي اعلام كرده و امروز نيز در همايش تهران دوباره گفت كه رابطة متقابل افراد و اموال در رژيم اقتصادي جمهوري اسلامي بايد مطابق با قانون اساسي تدوين شود و مغايرتي با آن نداشته باشد. از ديگاه صرفا حقوقي حق با حسين نمازي است و ترديدي نيست كه اصول اقتصادي قانون اساسي با اقتصاد بستة سوسياليستي بيشتر هماهنگ است تا با اقتصاد آزاد منطبق با پويايي بازار هاي منطقه‌اي و جهاني.

در كنفرانسي كه امروز در تهران با پيام محمدخاتمي، رئيس جمهوري اسلامي، افتتاح شد، اصول اقتصادي قانون اساسي جمهوري اسلامي مورد بحث قرار مي گيرد. اصول اقتصادي قانون اساسي بدون ترديد با اقتصاد بسته سوسياليستي بيشتر هماهنگي دارد تا با اقتصاد آزاد منطبق با پويائي بازارها و يكي از معدود قوانين اساسي جهان است كه با وارد شدن به جزئيات سياستگذاري اقتصادي، به مانع عمده اي بر سر اصلاحات تبديل شده است. حسين نمازي، مبتكر كنفرانس بررسي اصول اقتصادي قانون اساسي در چهارسال اول رياست جمهوري خاتمي وزير دارائي بود و يكي از هواداران اقتصاد دولتي است كه كوشيد راه خصوصي سازي را سد كند. براي مطالعه گزارش راديوآزادي در باره اهميت اين كنفرانس و نقشي كه ممكن است در زمينه سازي براي اصلاح قانون اساسي جمهوري اسلامي داشته باشد، دگمه متن فارسي را كليك بزنيد.

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